S1084: Industrial Hemp Production, Processing, and Marketing in the U.S.

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

S1084: Industrial Hemp Production, Processing, and Marketing in the U.S.

Duration: 10/01/2023 to 09/30/2028

Administrative Advisor(s):


NIFA Reps:


Non-Technical Summary

Statement of Issues and Justification

Issues and Justification


The need as indicated by stakeholders.


Following the legalization of hemp (Cannabis sativa <0.3% THC) by the 2018 Farm Bill, farmers expressed tremendous interest in growing the crop and 48 states developed hemp programs. A lack of USDA and academic research for more than 80 years has resulted in an incredibly thin knowledge base to support the deployment of sustainable production systems, develop long-term breeding programs, and/or evaluate the economic viability of hemp. Companies see potential value in developing hemp products. Yet, to achieve profitability, solutions are needed to address breeding and selection of adapted cultivars, agronomic best management practices, fluctuating markets, and the current patchwork of state and federal regulations. A key value of hemp is its versatility to provide high quality industrial feedstocks, fiber for traditional textiles and rope, as well as hurd for industrial applications such as biomaterials, composites, cellulose nanofibril bioproducts, and building materials. Hemp seed is not only consumed directly as human food but can be processed into oil for health care products and high protein press cake for plant-based meats or feed for livestock and pets, depending upon regulations. This project will address 2018 Farm Bill priority areas by providing foundational and applied knowledge to improve the production of hemp crops that yield fiber-based products, food, and feed, while improving the sustainability of the agricultural ecosystem, incorporating new technology, and strengthening rural communities. Furthermore, as the priorities of the 2023 Farm Bill become more clear, we will work towards meeting them as they are implemented.


Production research on Cannabis sativa has been restricted since the 1940s so hemp has not yet benefited from major agronomy, genetic, entomology, and plant pathology innovations applied toother crops since that time. This represents an opportunity to rapidly advance hemp cropping systems and avoid some of the major pitfalls experienced in the development of other major crops. For example, the Green Revolution led to major gains in crop yield but was built around varieties and management systems that require substantial inputs of synthetic fertilizer, pesticides, and irrigation that are damaging to natural ecosystems. As a newly legal crop, hemp represents a chance to create food, feed, and fiber using more sustainable practices than are commonly applied to corn, soy, and cotton. Key to achieving this will be optimizing genetics for sustainable management practices while focusing on traits important to farmers and consumers.


Our research activities will provide growers with the necessary tools to utilize hemp in their production systems to increase U.S. agricultural production with a reduction in environmental footprint. We aim to accomplish this by using genomics-enabled plant breeding, improving soil health, reducing reliance on pesticides and chemical fertilizers, improving water quality, and addressing climate change by producing domestically grown food and industrial feedstocks that can replace fossil fuel-based materials and simultaneously sequester carbon from the atmosphere.


Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics


Access to adapted cultivars and high quality, certified seed is still a significant issue for producers. Supporting plant breeding initiatives and working with local seed businesses will help bring a reliable source of adapted hemp seed to U.S. farmers. An emphasis on genomics-enabled plant breeding will be critical to meet the ambitious goal of increased production and is readily justified by the lack of land-grant breeding programs in hemp since the 1940s. Participating labs have been among the first in the U.S. to evaluate hemp cultivar performance across multiple environments and to develop mapping populations of low-THC industrial hemp. S-1084 team members have developed high throughput molecular markers that are highly useful for selecting low THC production and have characterized phenotypic variation in CBD hemp. Members of our group are leading efforts in the Midwest to collect feral hemp populations (ditchweed) that are remnants of 1940s era fiber plantings. Since the Controlled Substance Act, there has been no public hemp germplasm resource in the U.S., which is critical to support long-term breeding programs. Very recently, the USDA-ARS National Hemp Germplasm Repository was established in the National Plant Germplasm System in the Plant Genetic Resource Unit (PGRU) at Cornell AgriTech. Our group is working closely with newly hired curator Dr. Zachary Stansell to best initiate this public resource, and we will contribute to and leverage the resources of the USDA ARS Hemp Germplasm Repository.


Our cooperative projects will evaluate new, THC compliant cultivars with improved traits and move them quickly through the research pipeline for agronomic testing, quality evaluation, and subsequent product development.


Agronomy and Sustainability


Research advances in hemp breeding and genetic improvement need to be coupled with cropping system development. Our goal is to develop sustainable cropping systems based on management practices that balance trade-offs in grower profitability, natural resource conservation, and ecological footprint. Innovative and collaborative approaches will be used to evaluate available cultivars and identify agronomic best management practices based on intended markets and regional adaptation. Despite the myth that hemp can produce numerous products with little to no inputs or impact on the environment, in reality it is an annual plant species with many of the same production needs and challenges inherent in other annual cropping systems.


Realizing our goal of economically viable and ecologically sustainable hemp cropping systems will require solutions to many problems facing hemp producers from production through marketing. Key agronomic factors necessary for sustainable hemp cropping systems include improvements in crop establishment, management, harvest, and post-harvest processing, specific to the products and markets of interest. Managing hemp for multiple products or ecosystem services is necessary, but also complicates the work ahead. Agronomic management and sustainability outcomes will certainly also vary across environments and agricultural systems. While the production of food, feed, and fiber is an obvious ecosystem service provided by hemp cropping systems, these agroecosystems can also provide a myriad of additional services through improvements to biodiversity, carbon sequestration, changes in soil health, water use efficiency and water quality. Each of these services must be evaluated at farm and landscape scales to determine the environmental impact of hemp cultivation and validate sustainability claims.


Our team will investigate production inputs (e.g., fertility) within different agroecological zones and possible biological substitutions (e.g., cover crops) where possible to develop regionally adapted best management practices for hemp cropping systems. Collaborative projects will commit to monitoring agronomic, environmental, and ecological features of hemp agroecosystems under investigation. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential economic and environmental impact of the hemp cropping system and further consider the value of increasing diversity in the portfolio of crops grown in rotation across regions. In addition, the potential impact of harvesting, drying, and storage processes on the quality of various end products will be assessed.


Sustainable Pest Management


As acreage of hemp increases, there has also been an increase in disease, insect and weed pressure during crop production. While there are now some pesticides registered for use in hemp in both conventional and organic production, growers are still seeing significant losses and additional management tools are needed. As a first step to understand the issues growers are facing across the country, team members developed and conducted a survey of diagnosticians, researchers, and industry leaders to determine the distribution and occurrence of 76 insect and disease pests. The survey highlighted similarities and differences in disease and pest occurrence in different regions across the US.


In addition to understanding which pests to prioritize, trials to evaluate efficacy of available management strategies, as well as identification of host resistance is critical for sustainable pest management. Some efficacy trials have been conducted, and the group will continue such trials and also expand our knowledge of the most common weeds that hemp growers are battling, and control strategies for those weeds. A common repository for pest, weed and disease management information along with data on cultivar resistance/susceptibility will be developed. We will also develop a curated image database with representative images of common pests, weeds and diseases. Information will be disseminated to industry stakeholders and researchers via talks, webinars, fact sheets, extension, and research articles, as well as social media.


 


Product Quality and Market Development


There is growing evidence that hemp grain offers significant nutritional benefits to humans as a food ingredient and animals in different feeding regimes. Hemp grain is considered a functional food, with relatively high (>20%) levels of protein, oil (between 27 and 38%), vitamin E, insoluble fiber, and an array of minerals. Hemp’s fatty acid profile is of particular interest given its 3:1 omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio – considered optimal for human health – and its relatively high concentrations of anti-inflammatory fatty acids, including gamma-linolenic acid, which is not found in other major food grains. Research from animal models suggests that feeding hempseed diets can prevent cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation. In a small study in human subjects, those who consumed hemp oil had better serum high density lipoprotein HDL:total cholesterol ratios relative to those who consumed flaxseed oil. Significant opportunities exist to create value-added products by feeding hemp and hemp by-products to livestock. Meat from cattle fed hemp seed has increased concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (an important dietary anti-carcinogen), laying hens fed hemp seed or hemp seed oil laid larger eggs with proportional increases in omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, and press cake (the residual meal from hemp oil extraction) can be an important source of supplemental protein in animal rations. These and other reports of change in animal products indicate that feeding hemp seeds, oils, and meals to livestock may have positive consequences for the human end consumer. The Hemp Feed Coalition has been driving research that will form a basis for AAFCO approval and GRAS status of feeds (https://hempfeedcoalition.org/).


Hemp fiber has the potential for diverse applications as a renewable resource for textiles, construction, and manufacturing. Hemp fiber has fundamental properties that exceed most other plant fibers and approaches that of glass fiber. Hemp fiber’s specific or mass (density)-normalized properties greatly exceed most other fibers giving it greater strength-to-weight ratio. This makes hemp fiber an excellent component for fiber reinforced plastic composites, particularly because it is much lighter than glass fiber and much cheaper than carbon fiber. Economic fiber reinforced plastic composites are one of the major drivers for enabling advanced electric vehicle (E.V.) and modern automobile technology because they allow for “lightweighting” of the vehicle without adding to cost. Thus, the plastic composites increase the E.V.’s range and the fuel efficiency of traditional internal combustion engine powered cars. Hemp fiber can also be converted to cellulose nanocrystals or nanofibers, an emerging component for the same composites. Decortication of hemp straw yields mostly hurd (~75-80% of dry matter), so any fiber-based product development strategy must also identify a profitable use for the hurd. These can include absorbents, such as animal bedding, cat litter, or diapers based on the high capillarity of hemp hurd.


Our group will work in an integrated fashion with researchers focused on breeding and genetics, cultivar evaluation, and sustainable crop management to advance our understanding of the downstream implications for product quality and value. In addition, our research tasks will evaluate the hemp grain, fiber, and hurd produced in regional trials for food, feed, and fiber product development.


 Economic Viability


While many unknowns surround the economics of hemp, two definitive statements can be made about the continually evolving hemp industry. First, hemp can be used as an input for thousands of products. When hemp was first reintroduced in 2014 the expectation was that hemp fiber and grain production would be the primary focus of farm level production. However, the acreage of floral hemp grew rapidly with the rise of the CBD market. The enthusiasm around the CBD market resulted in the development of a CBD bubble that burst in 2019. Since 2019 floral hemp acres are decreasing as rapidly as they increased. This has allowed the industry an opportunity a chance to reset along with grain and fiber observing gradual acreage expansions. Thus, the research focus has shifted to explore the economic viability of products produced from grain and fiber. Second, sales of hemp products in the United States and worldwide currently represent a relatively small market share of overall food, textile, personal care products, and sales from other sectors but have been growing relatively briskly in recent years. According to the Hemp Industries Association (HIA), hemp being grown in 2022 is primarily destined for the fiber and grain market. One of the key hurdles hemp will have to overcome is providing expected returns equivalent to or exceeding expected returns for competing for crops in order to buy away acres from alternative crops.


Different production, harvesting, processing, and products must be explored to identify profitable hemp supply chains. In addition, there are trade-offs between the over 25,000 different products that can be produced from floral, grain, and fiber hemp. Systematically, members of this group have been working together to develop enterprise budgets for evaluating production systems, identifying processors and processing methods, assessing the current regulatory framework, and determining the implications of legislative proposals. This group will also coordinate with the new NE2105 Multistate that is focused on the demand for hemp products.


 The work's importance and the consequences if it is not done.


A lack of USDA and academic research for more than 80 years has resulted in an incredibly thin, informal knowledge base to support the deployment of long-term breeding programs and sustainable production systems. The lack of relevant research-based information available for hemp producers often leads to poor decision making and outcomes.  As a result, the modern domestic hemp market remains disjointed. Contemporary research must be done to explore agronomics, develop genetic resources, manage pests, and provide economic and market development to help farmers and industries develop an economically and environmentally viable hemp economy.


The technical feasibility of the research.


The S1084 multistate hemp effort was initiated in 2018 and has member representation from 34 academic institutions across 25 states. Members also represent various disciplines, including agronomists, plant pathologists, entomologists, plant breeders, and economists. This group has a breadth of expertise and various resources to conduct meaningful research. Stakeholder needs drive research objectives, and the diverse technical expertise available through S1084 can address these objectives.


 The advantages for doing the work as a multistate effort.


Due to the gap in U.S.-based research of nearly 80 years, a multistate activity that coordinates and pools resources will provide maximum impact for the greatest number of stakeholders. This re-emerging industry has seen much stakeholder interest and private investment but does not yet enjoy broader financial support from grower organizations or competitive federal granting programs. As with other regional crop projects, a multistate approach allows for evaluating varieties, management practices, and costs across a broader range of soils and microclimates than would be possible for a single state or institution.


What the likely impacts will be from successfully completing the work.


Our team has conducted cooperative hemp research and extension projects that have already had major impacts by bringing science and academic rigor to a fledgling industry. Our research activities have addressed breeding, cultivation, feedstock logistics, the industrial processing of products, and market analysis. Based on an informal survey of the S1084 members, research has made its way directly to the farming community through Extension outreach mechanisms including the publication of over 40 unique factsheets and web-based materials. More than 50 peer-reviewed publications are sharing the work with other scientists worldwide, and over 20 million in grant funds have been leveraged to further expand hemp research in the country. We expect similar outcomes over the next 5 years of multistate hemp collaboration.

Related, Current and Previous Work

The S1084 multistate hemp effort was initiated in 2018 and has 68 registered members from 34 academic institutions across 25 states. Due to the gap in U.S.-based research of nearly 80 years, a multistate activity has provided for coordination and support to provide the maximum output of research and educational information for the emerging hemp industry. The S1084 multistate project has a clear track record of delivering information to a variety of audiences with members reporting 42 peer-reviewed articles and 35 extension publications in a recent survey. All publications can be found in the literature cited section of the proposal. Previous and current work of the S1084 multistate effort is described as well as relevant publications.


A multi-state dual purpose (grain/fiber) cultivar trial has been conducted as part of the current S-1084 project.  Twelve to fifteen cultivars have been tested at up to 15 locations each growing season for a total of 25 unique cultivars tested at nearly 60 site-year locations attempted over the first four years of this trial. Not all site-years have produced usable data in the early stages but we have refined our methods and gathered valuable information on the adaptability of available cultivars in different regions across the nation.  Currently available cultivars appear to be better adapted to northern latitudes with transition zones with southern locations struggling to achieve economically viable yield of grain and fiber. Extension professionals from the multistate project have shared results with stakeholders through factsheets and online reports (Darby, et al., 2020; 2021; Crawford et al., 2018; 2019; 2020; Monserrate et al., 2021; 2022; Richmond, 2021). A peer reviewed publication summarizing the first four years of cultivar trials is under development.  As new cultivars are developed and released, we need to continue this work, providing variety recommendations for farmers and feedback to breeding and genetics group. 


Consistent establishment has been a challenge for participants conducting field research with stand establishment rates of less than 50% of viable seed planted being commonly observed.  Several S-1084 members have begun trials to establish optimum planting dates and management. The preliminary results of these efforts have been shared with stakeholders through local field days, webinars, and extension publications (Collins and Snyder, 2021).            


Crop water requirements for hemp and how those vary across genotypes was a critical question. In addition, although there was published evidence that cannabinoids were under strong genetic control, the USDA and other regulatory agencies were promoting the idea that THC content was highly sensitive to the environment. To address these 2 concerns, McKay and collaborators identified a set of EU hemp varieties that were predicted to have the right maturity to be produced in Colorado. These 13 EU cultivars were grown at latitudes 37N in southern Colorado and ~41N in northern Colorado, in replicated plots trials. At each location the factor irrigation was manipulated to create large differences in soil moisture availability. We measured response variables including yield, growth and cannabinoids and showed that yield was highly influenced by environment but cannabinoids were under strong genetic control. We also showed that some genotypes were less sensitive with regard to the yield response to water availability (Campbell et al., 2019).



A major accomplishment for the Pests and Diseases group was the submission of a manuscript entitled Occurrence and Distribution of Common Diseases and Pests of US Cannabis: A Survey to the journal Plant Health Progress. The manuscript was based on a nation-wide survey completed by our group. Although C. sativa is often promoted as a pest-free crop, many pest and disease issues have been identified and published in peer-reviewed journals. We conducted a survey of diagnosticians, researchers, and industry leaders in 2021-22 with the goal of determining the distribution and occurrence of common diseases and pests on C. sativa across the U.S. The survey included 76 common diseases and pests that respondents could select from, stating if each pest or pathogen was very common, common, uncommon, rare, or never observed. Responses (n=148) were collected and grouped by U.S. region: Western, Great Plains, North Central, Northeastern, and Southern. Survey results suggest that while some pathogens and pests are widely distributed across the U.S., others occur more frequently in specific regions, which may represent variations in economic importance. Researchers, growers, and extension personnel can use results from this survey as a baseline for what diseases and pests to look for in their geographic region. Additionally, the data provide a foundation for prioritization of research and regulatory activities at regional and national levels.


S-1084 members also conducted efficacy trials to identify products that will control diseases of hemp including powdery mildew, botrytis gray mold, fusarium bud head blight, Southern blight, Pythium damping-off (seed treatments were tested), and various leaf spots. These trials have, in some cases, identified fungicides that are effective against specific pathogens and are approved for use on hemp. Many of the commercially available products are biofungicides, and efficacy can vary depending on the environment. Consequently, trials performed by researchers in geographically distinct regions of the US are critical to provide the best information on disease management. Multi-state members also surveyed cultivar trials for the presence of disease and insect damage. Because of resistance screening associated with S-1084, we have identified at least one source of resistance to powdery mildew.


A collaborative research effort involving S-1084 members across 19 states has been initiated to collect a geographically distributed range of genetically diverse and THC-complaint hemp germplasm that will kick start research and breeding efforts. To date over 1,000 feral hemp samples have been collected across eight states. This collection will be deposited into the USDA hemp germplasm repository and serve as a resource for the characterization of genes and mining of alleles for beneficial traits in breeding new hemp cultivars.


The dissemination of information to hemp growers, extension educators, crop consultants, and the hemp research community is critical. As a group, we have given over 100 talks providing growers with tools needed to accurately identify hemp pests and diseases and develop control strategies. We have written extension articles and fact sheets to provide free access to images, applied research data, and updates to the agricultural community, policy makers and the public (Cala et al., 2019; Shelnutt et al., 2022). We are also active on social media, where we can provide images and quick updates along with links to additional written information, videos, and webinars.


The Universities of Kentucky, Vermont and Colorado State are leading multiple national surveys of hemp producers and consumers. These surveys are being conducted to identify the regional differences in production costs and practices. In addition, the consumer surveys are being conducted to identify hemp products that consumers are most likely to consume. This work is currently in the process of being submitted for publication. This work is also evaluating the economic impact of hemp production in the states of Kentucky, Vermont and Colorado.


Forthcoming faculty at the Universities of Kentucky, Vermont and Colorado State have a manuscript that is evaluating state competitive advantages with respect to state hemp policies and regulations. Forthcoming faculty at the Universities of Kentucky, Colorado State, and Cornell have a manuscript examining the wide range of marketing channels that hemp producers are having to utilize to sell their products.


Although considerble work has been achieved in the first five years of the multistate project, the dirth of information for farmers and industry stakeholders still remains. The multistate project has met with stakeholders and developed the next five year workplan to support the sustainable growth of the hemp industry.

Objectives

  1. Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics
    Comments: Objectives related to Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics: • Collect and curate hemp germplasm within the United States. • Develop marker systems for genomic analysis for genetic mapping and to catalog genetic variation. • Develop pipelines for phenotypic analysis for characterizing variation due to genetics and environment. • Investigate the genetic basis of yield and quality in floral, grain, and fiber hemp market classes.
  2. Agronomy and Sustainability
    Comments: Objectives related to Agronomy and Sustainability: • Deploy common trial design and data management standards within a public forum and database repository. • Review available commercial and experimental hemp cultivars for agronomic performance and regional adaptability targeting specific products/markets. • Characterize fertility and water demands of the crop in conventional and organic systems to calibrate stand establishment, efficient management practices, optimum crop yield and quality, while minimizing environmental impact . • Establish hemp cropping systems to maximize ecosystem services through variety selection, conservation management, crop rotation, and enhanced biodiversity which limits inputs, controls weeds, improves soil, sequesters carbon, fosters wildlife, and supports social equity.
  3. Sustainable Pest Management
    Comments: Objectives related to Sustainable Pest Management: • Develop a repository for pest, weed, and disease management and resistant cultivar data. Our members often conduct fungicide, insecticide, and herbicide trials and/or evaluate cultivars for sources of resistance. This data is typically published in discipline-specific journals and often fails to effectively reach stakeholders. With the development of a collaborative website, group members can upload summaries of their data with interpretations, as well as links to the original data. • Develop an image database. The resulting curated image database will include representative images of the top pests, weeds, and diseases for all regions. Open-sourced images can later be used for individual and joint scouting guides, local and regional resources, and national programs.
  4. Product Quality, Market Development, and Economics
    Comments: Objectives related to Product Quality, Market Development, and Economics: • Identify regional hemp production costs and practices. • Define engineering and processing needs for crop and product quality targets across hemp crop types. • Assess crop value and quality differences when grown in different cropping systems and for different crop types. • Update production budgets for different cropping systems and crop types. These should include budgets for grain, fiber, floral and dual cropping systems.

Methods

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics:</span> A coordinated effort will be made to identify and collect seed and site information from feral hemp populations across different ecoregions within the United States. Compliant seed will be made available through the USDA hemp germplasm repository. Populations will be phenotypically and genetically characterized in common gardens and data will be made available in public databases (i.e. GRIN, Breeding Insights).</p> <p>Public genomic and bioinformatic databases will be expanded as additional genome sequencing and annotation is accomplished.&nbsp;Low-cost, high-throughput marker systems will be developed to establish a common genotyping platform that will unify genetic mapping projects and analysis of genetic and population level diversity.&nbsp; Improved, reference genomes will be produced, including assembly of the sex chromosomes and development of a pangenome that will assist<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">, </span>variant detection and QTL/GWA analyses. Much of this information will be entered into a publicly accessible database called HempBase that will be coordinated through the Cornell Breeding Insight group and USDA ARS.&nbsp;</p> <p>Phenotypic analysis standards and pipelines will be developed that include unified trait ontologies for data collection and curation that will also provide the fields for data entry into HempBase using FieldBook. Mapping populations, diversity panels, and clones of genotypes that represent the reference genomes will be created and distributed across locations to determine the genetic basis of yield and quality in floral, grain, and fiber hemp market classes.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Agronomy and Sustainability:</span> Existing methods and data standards established by the multi-state coordinated trials will be reviewed and harmonized. The resulting trial design and data management plan will be distributed through an online platform that will also host data, analysis, and output from multi-state efforts. Research efforts will emphasize variety, stand establishment and fertility management trials accounting for economic, environmental, and social impacts contributing to the objective targets. Each site in the coordinated trials will complete an assessment of hemp cultivation and productivity in the context of at least one critical environmental consideration (i.e., soil, water, biodiversity), though the group will be encouraged to complete a full assessment in alignment with the target objective.</p> <p>Efforts to evaluate the regional adaptability of hemp cultivars will continue through a coordinated national cultivar trial. The trial coordinator will solicit cultivar entries from hemp breeders/seed distributors to be shared with trial cooperators.&nbsp; A common protocol and data collection template will be utilized by cooperators to evaluate the cultivars at multiple locations. Data will be pooled, analyzed, and distributed to cooperators and stakeholders.</p> <p>Fertility trials will focus on nitrogen (N) management related to rate, timing, and placement. Measures of soil-N, crop-N, weed-N, and fertilizer-N inputs will be used to calculate a partial N balance through the system to estimate N use efficiency.</p> <p>Participating sites will monitor soil and water quality dynamics under hemp cultivation. Soil health assessments will be conducted at each site each year to monitor long-term trends. Cover crops will be included within fertility trials to determine how much the reliance on external N inputs can be reduced. Coordinated trials will be evaluated for impacts of climate, soil, and latitude on dates for planting, flowering, and crop maturity. Emphasis will be placed on the development and adoption of climate-smart management practices based on accounting for CO2 equivalent emissions and sequestration potential.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Sustainable Pest Management:</span> A website will be built by team member C Smart that will be branded with the S-1084 team information. A-1084 members will place reports written for pesticide efficacy trials and hemp cultivar disease/insect resistance trials will either place their reports on this website or provide a link on this newly developed S-1084 website so all pest control information can be found in a single location.&nbsp;</p> <p>An image database of weeds, insects and diseases will be developed in collaboration with the Bugwood image database (<a href="http://www.bugwood.org">www.bugwood.org</a>). Working with Bugwood administrators, we will upload and curate images of hemp pests so they are easily searchable and accessible to all.&nbsp;</p> <p>A key component of the project is that all data collected on sustainable pest control strategies (pesticide and variety trials) as well as general information on sustainable pest management in hemp will be disseminated to stakeholders. Information will be shared at local and regional grower meetings, fact sheets, webinars, social media, and national hemp meetings. All of these interactions will be tracked by including the number of participants and length of the interaction. This information will be collated and provided in the annual report.&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Product Quality, Market Development, and Economics: </span>Regional production cost and practice information will be established utilizing a nationwide survey and focus groups that S1084 members are participating in over the next year. Additional information from USDA-NASS surveys administered in 2022 and 2023 will be used for the verification of hemp acreage and pricing. Once these costs and practices are identified the enterprise budgets can be updated to reflect the regional differences in these practices.</p> <p>Crop value is often driven by crop quality. However, for hemp quality characteristics have been poorly defined to this point. Working with USDA-ARS and other members of the S1084 group to establish these standards based on end market targets and specifications provided by the industry. Once the metrics have been established, we will model the price discounts that can be expected based upon end use.</p> <p><strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</span></strong></p>

Measurement of Progress and Results

Outputs

  • Expansion of the USDA ARS national hemp germplasm repository through collection, donation and characterization of accessions from multiple states through coordinated collection efforts.
  • Development of molecular tools for genetic mapping of desirable traits in hemp and development of markets for marker assisted breeding.
  • Identification of improved hemp cultivars suited for specific products/markets and production in different regions of the USA.
  • A public database repository hosting methods, data, and output from coordinated trials.
  • An image database of weeds, insects and diseases will be developed in collaboration with the Bugwood image database (www.bugwood.org).
  • Quantification and characterization of crop yield and quality as functions of plant cultivar and management practices.
  • Published production guides on best pest and agronomic management practices for hemp based on region and crop end-use.
  • Engineering and Economic metrics to help with hemp market development.
  • Enterprise budgets for use by producers, processors and industry stakeholders.

Outcomes or Projected Impacts

  • Hemp productivity and sustainability will improve on the basis of improved varietal selection, pest management, and agronomic practices.
  • Re-introduction of hemp into both farm community and public consciousness will allow expansion of the use of, and demand for, hemp products.
  • Data and management information derived from these studies will further inform researchers about the utility of hemp as an industrial commodity crop and will provide a basis for future research on product development and marketing.
  • Adoption of best management practices will be demonstrated across increased acreage with associated improvements in environmental impact, soil health, and climate adaptation.

Milestones

(2023):Begin or continue hemp variety and agronomic trials, monitoring hemp productivity and weed and pest pressures. Collection of hemp germplasm and submission to USDA for characterization of accessions. Develop molecular tools for genetic mapping of desirable traits in hemp. Establish standard trial design and data standard. Begin data analysis and organization across different states. Complete hemp survey of producers.

(2024):Begin or continue crop quality research and from previous year’s trials. (Cultivars subject to change for varietal evaluation.) Collection of hemp germplasm and submission to USDA for characterization of accessions. Development of molecular tools for genetic mapping of desirable traits in hemp. Update enterprise budgets. Develop S1084 website to act as a repository of hemp information. Collect images for pest database. Extend annual results through field days, fact sheets, and online presence.

(2025):Repeat or expand research efforts on agronomic and crop quality from local to regional scale. Collection of hemp germplasm and submission to USDA for characterization of accessions. Development of markets for marker assisted breeding. Establishment of engineering and economic metrics. Collect images for pest database. Extend annual results through field days, fact sheets, web presence. Compile fact sheets into regional production guides.

(2026):Begin or continue crop quality research drawing from previous years’ trials as needed. Collection of hemp germplasm and submission to USDA for characterization of accessions. Development of markets for marker assisted breeding. Submit information to S1084 website repository. Complete image database of hemp weeds, insects and diseases. Develop research journal publications on hemp production and suitability for different sites. Update of enterprise budgets to include dual usage hemp systems. Extend annual results through field days, fact sheets, web presence.

(2027):Complete peer-reviewed publications. Collection of hemp germplasm and submission to USDA for characterization of accessions. Update enterprise budgets. Extend annual results through fact sheets, web presence. Submit information to S1084 website.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Outreach Plan

Stakeholder needs assessments and feedback on research and outreach will be completed by participating states and collectively by the multistate project members. As an example, industry stakeholders were invited to the 2023 annual meeting to understand industry needs and garner feedback on future directions for research and education. The S1084 multistate project has a clear track record of delivering information to a variety of audiences with members reporting 42 peer-reviewed articles and 35 extension publications. We expect similar productivity and information dissemination during the next 5-year period.


 Results from the proposed project will be delivered to a wide variety of stakeholders. Field research conducted on farms (with producer collaborators as permitted by the USDA Hemp Program) and at Ag Research and Extension centers will serve as the platform for conducting field days with interested members of the producer community, other hemp stakeholders, and the general public. Numerous outreach events including in-person and virtual offerigns will continue in partner states.   In-service training will be used to keep extension personnel abreast of research progress. Information about the development of hemp as a commercial crop will also be delivered via news articles and newsletters, production guides, extension websites and through partnership with industry associations. At least five peer-reviewed publication will be collaboratively developed among members for each objective.

Organization/Governance

Activities of the project will be coordinated by elected officers serving as Chair, Vice-Chair, and Secretary. Each officer will serve a two-year term, with the Vice-Chair automatically moving up to the position of Chair after two years. Additionally, an Objective Coordinator will be appointed and responsible for summarizing research results for the objective for which they are responsible.


Administrative guidance will be provided by an assigned Administrative Advisor and a NIFA Representative. Project members will meet annually to review research progress, exchange information about responses to their respective regulatory environments, and to plan and coordinate future efforts. Additionally, annual meetings will be used to gather stakeholder input, identify new challenges and review or revise, as needed, common protocols for collaborative research experiments. The use of such common protocols will be essential for eventual publication of these data. Many decisions on exchange of germplasm will also be made at the annual meetings. 


Participants in the project will be required to comply with all applicable laws governing hemp in the state of their home institution.  

Literature Cited

Peer-Reviewed Publications:


Ahmed, B., Smart, L.B., and Hijri, M. (2021) Microbiome of field grown hemp reveals potential microbial interactions with root and rhizosphere soil. Front. Microbiol. 12, 741597 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.741597.


 


Anderson SL, Pearson B, Kjelgren R, Brym Z. 2021. Response of essential oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) growth, biomass, and cannabinoid profiles to varying fertigation rates. PLoS ONE. 16(7). e0252985. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252985


 


Barnett, S.E., Cala, A.R., Hansen, J.L., Crawford, J., Viands, D.R., Smart, L.B., Smart, C.D., and Buckley, D.H. (2020) Evaluating the microbiome of hemp. Phytobiomes 4:351-63. DOI: 10.1094/PBIOMES-06-20-0046-R.


 


Berthold EC, Yang R, Sharma A, Kamble SH, Kanumuri SR, King TI, Popa R, Freeman JH, Brym ZT, Avery BA, McCurdy CR. 2020. Regulatory sampling of industrial hemp plant samples (Cannabis sativa L.) using UPLC-MS/MS method for detection and quantification of twelve cannabinoids. Journal of Cannabis Research. 2: 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-020-00050-0


 


BJ Campbell, AF Berrada, C Hudalla, S Amaducci, JK McKay. 2019. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa, L.) Varieties Highlight Diverse Responses to Environmental Factors. Agrosystems, Geosciences and Environment. doi:10.2134/age2018.11.0057


 


BJ Campbell, D Zhang, JK McKay. 2019. Hemp Genetics and Genomics. Book Chapter in Industrial Hemp as a Modern Commodity Crop. D.W. Williams, editor. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711, USA. doi:10.2134/industrialhemp.c6


 


Blackwell, BF, Klug PE, Humberg LE, Brym ZT, Kluever BM, Edwards J. In press. Cultivation of industrial hemp on and near airports: implications for wildlife use and risk to aviation safety. Human-Wildlife Interactions.


 


Britt, K. E., Meierotto, S. L., Morelos, V. E., and Wilson, H. 2022. "First year survey of arthropods in California hemp" Frontiers in Agronomy; https://doi.org/10.3389/fagro.2022.901416


 


Campbell, B.J., Berrada, A.F., Hudalla, C., Amaducci, S. & McKay, J. (2019). Genotype x Environment Interactions of Industrial Hemp Cultivars Highlight Diverse Responses to Environmental Factors. Agrosyst. Geosci. & Environ. 2:180057.


 


Campbell SM, Anderson SL, Brym ZT, Pearson BJ. 2021. Evaluation of substrate composition and exogenous hormone application on vegetative propagule rooting success of essential oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). PLoS ONE. 16(7). e0249160. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249160


 


Canavan S, Brym ZT, Brundu G, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Lieurance D, Petri TA, Wadlington WW, Wilson JR, Flory SL. 2022. Cannabis de-domestication and invasion risk. Biological Conservation, 274, 109709.


 


Carlson, C.H., Stack, G.M., Jiang, Y, Taskiran, B., Cala, A.R., Toth, J.A., Philippe, G., Rose, J.K.C., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2021) Morphometric relationships and their contribution to biomass and cannabinoid profiles in hybrids of hemp (Cannabis sativa). J. Exp. Bot. 72:7694–7709. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erab346.


 


Feng, G., Sanderson, B.J., Liu, J., Ma, T., Smart, L.B., DiFazio, S.P., Olson, M.S. (2020) Pathways to sex determination in plants: How many roads lead to Rome? Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 54:61-68 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2020.01.004.


 


Fike, J.H., H. Darby, B.L. Johnson, L. Smart, D.W. Williams (2020) Industrial Hemp in the USA: A Brief Synopsis. In: Crini G., Lichtfouse E. (eds) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 42. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, vol 42. Springer, Cham, Switzerland. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-41384-2_3


 


Galic, A., Grab, H., Kaczmar, N., Maser, K., Miller, W.B., and Smart, L.B. (2022) Effects of cold temperature and acclimation on cold tolerance and cannabinoid profiles of Cannabis sativa L. (hemp). Horticulturae 8(6):531. DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060531.


 


Gevaudan, J. P., Costello, C., Napolitano, R., Reinhart, W., Brown, N., Vasco-Correa, J., Colburn, J. E., & Collins, A. A., et al. (2021). On Manufacturing Carbon Negative Materials to Reduce Embodied Emissions in Buildings. Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOE) Request for Information Report (pp. 10).


 


Giles, G., Indermaur, E.J., Gonzalez-Giron, J.L., Shelnutt, S., Starr, J.K., Myers, K., Jensen, S.L., Bergstrom, G.C., Crawford, J.L., Hansen, J.L., Smart, L.B., Smart, C.D. (2022) First report of Downy Mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cannabina on Cannabis sativa in New York. Plant Dis. (accepted pending revision).


 


Giles, G, Shellnutt, S, Starr, JK, Myers, K, Jensen, SL, Bergstrom, GC, Crawford, JL, Hansen, JL, Indermaur, EJ, Gonzalez-Giron, JL, Smart, LB, and Smart CD (2023) First report of downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cannabina on Cannabis sativa in New York. Plant Disease. In press


I Kovalchuk, M Pellino, P Rigault, R van Velzen, J Ebersbach, J R. Ashnest, M Mau, ME Schranz, J Alcorn, RB Laprairie, JK McKay, C Burbridge, D Schneider, D Vergara, NC Kane, TF Sharbel. 2020. The Genomics of Cannabis and Its Close Relatives. Annual Review of Plant Biology. doi:


10.1146/annurev-arplant-081519-040203


 


Kotten, EA, Klug PE, Hennessy I, Kluever BM, Brym ZT, Blackwell BF, Humberg LA. In press. Industrial Hemp as a Resource for Birds in Agroecosystems: Human-Wildlife Conflict or Conservation Opportunity? Human-Wildlife Interactions.


 


Kusuma, P., P. M. Pattison & B. Bugbee. 2021. Photon efficacy in horticulture: Turning LEDs packages into LED luminaires for indoor farming. In: Plant factory: basics, applications and advanced research, Eds. T. Kozai, G. Niu & J. Masabni. Elsevier


 


Kusuma, P. M. Westmoreland, S. Zhen, and B. Bugbee. 2021. Photons from NIR LEDs can delay flowering in short-day soybean and Cannabis: Implications for phytochrome activity. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255232


 


Langenfeld, N.J.; Pinto, D.F.; Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.; Bugbee, B. 2022. Principles of Nutrient and Water Management for Indoor Agriculture. Sustainability 14, 10204. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610204


 


Liu, M., Childs, M., Loos, M., Taylor, A., Smart, L.B., and Abbaspourrad, A. (2022) The effects of germination on the composition and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate. Food Hydrocoll. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2022.108085.


 


Lucas, S. T., Silvernail, A. F., & Lewis, M. D. (2022). Effects of traditional field retting of hemp on soil organic carbon and the soil microbial community. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 86(3), 742-757.


 


Mi, R., Taylor, A.G., Smart, L.B., and Mattson, N.S. (2020) Developing production guidelines for baby leaf hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an edible salad green: cultivar, sowing density and seed size. Agriculture 10:617. DOI: 10.3390/agriculture10120617.


 


Rampold S, Brym ZT, Kandzer MS, Baker LM. 2021. Hemp There it Is: Examining Consumers’ Attitudes Toward the Revitalization of Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity. Journal of Applied Communications. 105(4). https://doi.org/10.4148/1051-0834.2385.


 


Smart, L.B., Toth, J.A., Stack, G.M., Monserrate, L., and Smart, C.D. (2022) “Breeding of hemp (Cannabis sativa).” In: Goldman, I. ed. Plant Breeding Reviews Vol. 46, New York, NY; Wiley, pp. 239-288. (in press).


 


Stack, G.M., Toth, J.A., Carlson, C.H., Cala, A.R., Marrero-González, M.I., Wilk, R.L., Gentner, D.R., Crawford, J.L., Philippe, G., Rose, J.K.C., Viands, D.R., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2021) Season-long evaluation of 30 high-cannabinoid hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals variation in cannabinoid accumulation, flowering time, and disease resistance. GCB Bioenergy 13:546-61. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12793.


 


Toth, J.A., Smart, L.B., Smart, C.D., Stack, G.M., Cala, A.R., Carlson, C.H., Philippe, G., and Rose, J.K.C. (2021) Stress treatments have little effect on cannabinoid profile in high-cannabidiol hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) GCB Bioenergy 13:1666-1674. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12880. Smart, L.B. (2021) Introduction – United States Hemp Research and Education Conference Special Issue. GCB Bioenergy, DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12817.


 


Toth J., Stack G., Cala A., Carlson C.H., Wilk R., Crawford J., Viands D., Philippe G., Smart C.D., Rose J.K.C., Smart L.B. (2020) Development and validation of genetic markers for sex and cannabinoid chemotype in Cannabis sativa L. GCB Bioenergy 12:213-222. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12667.


 


Toth, J.A., Stack, G.M., Carlson, C.H., and Smart, L.B. (2022) Identification and mapping of major-effect flowering time loci Autoflower1 and Early1 in Cannabis sativa L. Front. Plant Sci. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.991680.


 


Weldon, WA, Ullrich, MR, Smart, LB, Smart, CD, Gadoury, DM (2020) Cross infectivity of powdery mildew isolates originating from hemp (Cannabis sativa) and Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus) in New York. Plant Health Progress 21 Jan 2020 https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-09-19-0067-RS


 


Westmoreland, F.M., P. Kusuma, B. Bugbee. 2021. Cannabis lighting: Decreasing blue photon fraction increases yield but efficacy is more important for cost effective production of cannabinoids. PLoS One 16(3) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248988


 


Woods P, Campbell BJ, Nicodemus TJ, Cahoon EB, Mullen JL, McKay JK. 2021. Quantitative trait loci controlling agronomic and biochemical traits in Cannabis sativa. Genetics, Volume 219, , doi.org/10.1093/genetics/iyab099


 


Woods P, Price N, Matthews P, McKay JK. 2022. Genome-wide polymorphism and genic selection in feral and domesticated lineages of Cannabis sativa. G3, in press.


Wylie, S.E., A.G. Ristvey and N.M. Fiorellino. 2020. Fertility management for industrial hemp production: Current knowledge and future research needs. BCG Bioenergy. 00:1–8. https:// doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12779


 


Yang R, Berthold EC, McCurdy CR, Benevenute S, Brym ZT, Freeman JH. 2020. Development of cannabinoids in flowers of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): A Pilot Study. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 8(22):6058–6064. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01211


 


Zhang M, Anderson SL, Brym ZT, Pearson BJ. 2021. Photoperiodic Flowering Response of Essential Oil, Grain, and Fiber Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars. Frontiers in Plant Science. 12. 694153. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.694153 https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2021.694153


 


Zhen, S., P. Kusuma, and B. Bugbee. 2021. Toward an optimal spectrum for photosynthesis and plant morphology in LED-based crop cultivation. In: Plant factory: basics, applications and advanced research, Eds. T. Kozai, G. Niu & J. Masabni. Elsevier


 


Zhen, S., van Iersel, M.W., and Bugbee, B. 2022. Photosynthesis in sun and shade: the surprising importance of far-red photons. New Phytologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18375


 


Extension publications:


 Cala, A., Portilla, N., Weldon, B., Gura, W., King, N., Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Gadoury, D., Sapkota, S., Smart, L.B., and Smart, C.D. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluating Powdery Mildew Resistance in CBD Hemp Cultivars – Preliminary Results”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Collins, A. A. EPA-Approved Products for Crop Management of Hemp (2022) Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Fact Sheet


 


Collins, A.A., Snyder, K. Mitigating Production Risks in Hemp for Fiber, Grain, and Essential Oils. (2021) Penn State Extension Fact Sheet


 


Crawford, J., Carlson, C., Wilk, R., Yoffie, E., Stack, G., Hansen, J., Bergstrom, G., Taylor, A., Viands, D., and Smart, L.B. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2017 and 2018 NY fiber grain hemp trials: A take of two very different years”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Crawford, J., Chavez, J, Crawford, R, Schiller, J, Monserrate, L, Toth, J., Smart, L, Hansen, J, Moore, V. (2021) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of hemp grain and fiber cultivars in New York State in 2021”. School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Crawford, J., Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Gentner, D., DeSario, A., Taylor, A., Viands, D., and Smart, L.B. (2020) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of 27 industrial hemp grain and fiber cultivars across New York State in 2020”. Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Crawford, J., Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Wilk, R., Taylor, Al., Viands, D., and Smart, L.B. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of industrial hemp grain and fiber cultivars across New York State in 2019”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Crawford, J., Wilk, R., Stack, G., Taylor, A., Viands, D., Smart, L.B. (2018) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of 32 industrial hemp grain and fiber cultivars across New York State in 2018.” Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


 


Darby, H., Bruce, J., Krezinski, I. and L. Ruhl. 2020. Hemp Flower Variety Trial. University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program. St. Albans, VT. https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/Northwest-Crops-and-Soils-Program/2020%20Research%20Reports/2020_Hemp_Flower_Variety_Trial_Final.pdf


 


Darby, H., Bruce, J., Sullivan, L. and S. Ziegler. 2021. Hemp Flower Variety Trial. University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program. St. Albans, VT. https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/Northwest-Crops-and-Soils-Program/2021%20Research%20Rpts/2021_UVM_Hemp_Flower_Variety_Trial_Final.pdf


 


Darby, H., Malone, R., Bruce, J., Luke, I. and S. Ziegler. 2020. Industrial Grain Hemp Variety Trial. University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program. St. Albans, VT. https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/Northwest-Crops-and-Soils-Program/2020%20Research%20Reports/2020_Grain_hemp_VT_report.pdf 


 


Darby, H., Sullivan, L. and J. Bruce. 2021. Industrial Grain Hemp Variety Trial. University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program. St. Albans, VT. https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/Northwest-Crops-and-Soils-Program/2021%20Research%20Rpts/2021_Grain_hemp_VT_report_final.pdf


 


 


Darby, H., Sullivan, L. and J. Bruce. 2021. Industrial Hemp Fiber Variety Trial. University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops and Soils Program. St. Albans, VT. https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/Northwest-Crops-and-Soils-Program/2021%20Research%20Rpts/2021_hemp_fiber_report.pdf


 


DeSario, A. and Smart, L.B. (2020) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Hemp seed nutrition”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


DeSario, A., Zingg, T., and Smart, L.B. (2020) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of clonal propagation of hemp cultivar ‘TJ’s CBD’ in different media types”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Filgueiras, C., Willett, D., Cala, A., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Characterizing terpenes and other natural products in CBD hemp”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Monserrate, L, Wares, A, Schessl, M, Crawford, J, Moore, V, Smart, L. (2021) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2021 Fiber and Dual-Purpose Strip Trials” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Monserrate, L, Wares, A, Zander, Z, Crawford, J, Snyder, S, Moore, V, Rose, J, Smart, L (2022) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2022 Fiber and Dual-Purpose Strip Trials” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Murdock, M, Schessl, M, Wares, A, Monserrate, L, Stack, G, Toth, J, Shelnutt, S, Grab, H, Crawford, J, Moore, V, Smart, L. (2021) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2021 CBD & CBG Cultivar Trials” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Murdock, M, Shelnutt, S, Qiu, T, Seyram, S, Reisinger, S, Wares, A, Kanaley, K, Niu, H, Gold, K, Jiang, Y, Irey, M, Suchoff, D, Smart, L (2022) “Remote Sensing in Hemp” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Murdock, M, Stack, G, Toth, J, Crawford, J, Schessl, M, Wares, A, Cala, A, Philippe, G, Rose, J, Moore, V, Smart, C, Smart, L. (2021) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2021 Triploid Seedless CBD & CBG Trials” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Richmond, M. Dual-Purpose Industrial Hemp Cultivar Trial in Tennessee. 2021. UT Extension.


Ellison, S. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) research priorities: Opinions from United States hemp stakeholders. GCB Bioenergy 2020, 13, 562–569.


 


Shelnutt, SS, Cala, AR, Stack, GM, Smart, CD, Smart, LB (2022) “2022 High Tunnel Powdery Mildew Control Trial” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Sisson, M., Lindsay, W., and Bridgen, M. – Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center, Riverhead, NY. Rusinek, T., Hepworth, A., and Jentsch, P. – Hudson Valley Research Lab and F.A.R.M., Highland, NY. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Demonstration of hemp cultivars for CBD production in the Hudson Valley and Long Island”


 


Smart, C.D., Smart, L.B., Crawford, J., Wilk, R., Cala, A., Stack, G., Viands, D., and Rose, J.C.K. (2018) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of industrial hemp cultivars for CBD production in 2018.” Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Smart, L.B., Smart, C.D., Wilk, R., and Stack, G. (2018) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Quantifying industrial hemp pollen movement.” Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Stack, G, Murdock, M, Wares, A, Snyder, S, Toth, J, Crawford, J, Schessl, M, Genna, N, Philippe, G, Stansell, Z, Rose, J, Moore, V, Smart, L. (2022) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Triploid Pollen-challenge Trials” School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Gentner, D., Zingg, T., DeSario, A., Shelnutt, S., Crawford, J., Cala, A., Philippe, G., Rose, J., Viands, D., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2020) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2020 CBD & CBG Cultivar Trials”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Marrero Gonzàlez, M., Wilk, R., Crawford, J., Cala, A., Philippe, G., Rose, J., Viands, D., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Evaluation of hemp cultivars for CBD production in 2019”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Wilk, R., Crawford, J., Cala, A., Philippe, G., Rose, J., Viands, D., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2019) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2018 Cannabinoid production analysis”, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Stack, G., Toth, J., Carlson, C., Wilk, R., Crawford, J., Cala, A., Philippe, G., Rose, J., Viands, D., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. – Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Toth, J.A., Stack, G., Carlson, C.H., Cala, A., Philippe, G., Rose, J., Smart, C.D., and Smart, L.B. (2021) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “2020 CBG Hemp Cultivar Trial”. Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Toth, J, Liu, M, Crawford, J, Smart, L, Moore, V, Abbaspourrad, A (2021) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Breeding for Grain Quality” College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.


 


Toth, J, Stack, G, Dowling, C, Shi, J, Melzer, R, Schilling, S, Smart, L (2022) Cornell Hemp Fact Sheet: “Flowering Time in Hemp”. School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell AgriTech, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.

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Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

AL, CA, CO, CT, FL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MT, NC, NJ, NM, NY, PA, TN, TX, VT, WA, WI

Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

Purdue University, Southern Illinois University
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