S1073: Biological Control of Arthropod Pests and Weeds

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

S1073: Biological Control of Arthropod Pests and Weeds

Duration: 10/01/2023 to 09/30/2028

Administrative Advisor(s):

NIFA Reps:

Non-Technical Summary

Statement of Issues and Justification

There is a critical need in the southern U.S. and globally for new insect, disease and weed biological control to manage native and non-native organisms. This need is even greater as climate change continues to disrupt ecological interactions such as herbivory, predation, and parasitism. Biological control contributes to food security and safety by reducing pesticide applications and losses due to species that consume or destroy agricultural commodities. Biological control is also valuable in reducing pesticide applications in ornamental plant production and in urban and suburban landscapes. This increases the safety of those landscapes for people, pets, and biodiversity. Additionally, biological control is needed to manage arthropod pests, diseases, and weeds in natural areas without harming non-target and beneficial organisms. Biological control is critical to protecting pollinators, monarchs, and other species of concern in agricultural, ornamental, and natural ecosystems. This proposal aims to continue the important work of the past eight Southern Region biological control research projects (S-192, S-238, S-267, SDC-319, SDC-351, S-1034, S-1058, and S-1073) and expand the effort to develop novel pest management approaches. Coordinated regional collaboration is fundamental for the success of these efforts. The southern U.S is the entry point and incubator of many non-native species and native sleeper species due to global entry points and warm climate. The proposed project aims to build on the many collaborations and accomplishments of this regional network of scientists engaged in biological control research. This project also aims to attract new members and foster the careers of early-career scientists and students to preserve continuity in biological control research and advancement. 

Biological control is the practice of releasing or promoting natural enemies of pests to reduce the pest populations and economic damage. Natural enemies in this context can be arthropod herbivores of plants, arthropod predators or parasitoids of arthropod pests, or disease agents, including nematodes, bacteria, fungus, or viruses, or plant or arthropod pests. Biological control consists of three primary areas of research and practice. Classical biological control entails the discovery and release of foreign natural enemies to manage foreign pests. Augmentative biological control entails the culture and release of native natural enemies to manage native or non-native pests. Conservation biological control is the practice of making pest prone habitats more hospitable to native natural enemies and less hospitable to pests. This increases natural enemy abundance without the expense of rearing and releasing them. All three components of biological control are covered by scientists in this project.

Global changes, including climate, urbanization, population growth, global nitrogen balance, invasive species, and other factors all influence production of food crops and ornamental plants. Global change also affects the biology, persistence, and spread of weeds. Global change factors, particularly climate, affect arthropod development, geographic range, voltinism, survival, and pest status. Climate also affects trophic interactions among arthropods and between arthropods and plants which is the very thing biological control seeks to exploit. Members of our regional group are dedicated to tackling this new frontier in biological control research to maintain past progress and adjust practices to new environmental situations. Understanding the interactions of global change factors and biological control is a new objective for our group.

Specialist and generalist natural enemies can play important roles in biological control. Specialist natural enemies have the advantage of specific adaptations to the pest and host specificity but they can be inflexible. Generalist natural enemies can often adjust to environmental conditions and take advantage of many prey or food resources. However, this ability to use alternate prey may disturb an unrelated food web. To develop sustainable biological control strategies, this project will assess individuals and communities of natural enemies and how they function in food webs to suppress pests of interest.

Cultural practices that enhance the action of existing natural enemies have gained grower acceptance. These cultural practices alter habitat complexity or resource availability and are important aspects of conservation biological control. Among the most prominent of these are conservation tillage, cover and trap crops, multiple cropping, and crop rotation. All of these practices affect the efficacy of natural enemies, as well as the abundance, timing and distribution of pest species within a field. Understanding how cultural practices interact with biological control also may yield opportunities to manipulate habitats to increase their suitability for natural enemies. However, the effective use of natural enemies in integrated pest management (IPM) programs is contingent on understanding their ecology and that of their targets, and their interactions with production and management practices.

Invasive species produce continuous new threats to agricultural production and natural resources. Members of our group will work on classical biological control in which non-native natural enemies approved for field release by USDA-APHIS will be released in the southern U.S. Ongoing release programs will build on new and previous evaluation studies on non-native, invasive weeds. Biological control programs targeting important non-native insect pests across the Southern Region will also be pursued for existing invasive species (e.g. emerald ash borer, red imported fire ant, hemlock woolly adelgid) and for relatively recent invasives such as spotted lanternfly and boxtree moth. 

Pesticides, plant-based insect resistance, and transgenic crops are common methods of insect management that can be integrated with biological control for more resilient pest suppression. Pest management will be most effective and economical if a variety of compatible technologies are developed and employed, rather than attempting to use a single option. Plant traits that result from breeding or genetic manipulation are important mechanisms that can hinder or enhance biological control. Members of our group will continue evaluating new crop varieties and phenotypes, and transgenic crops for their compatibility with biological control. 

Development and implementation of successful biological control programs are dependent on effective communication and coordination across the region. This multi-state research project will enhance biological control of arthropod pests and weeds in the Southeastern Region of the U.S. through collaboration among practitioners. This multi-state project provides a framework for target pest selection and coordinated research that focuses on pest-natural enemy complexes, addressing both entomology and weed science. Arthropod pest and weed biological control are based on many of the same ecological principles, and researchers from the two fields benefit greatly from information exchange and research collaboration. Although the methodologies for controlling arthropod pests and weeds may differ, the two fields share some of the same scientific issues (e.g., introduction strategies, genetics of colonization, evaluation of natural enemy impact, etc.). Further evidence of the conceptual similarities between these two fields is illustrated by the fact that some individuals involved in this project conduct research in both arthropod pest and weed systems.

Biological control is among the most selective, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable pest management practices for managing arthropod pests and weeds. It is increasingly important in IPM as concern grows about the effects of many insecticides, miticides, and herbicides on ecosystems and non-target organisms, including people. A fundamental principle in biological control is to select an appropriate agent or combination of agents that will bring about the desired level of pest suppression with minimal impact on non-target species. Reductions in insecticide and herbicide applications may allow farmers and ranchers to reduce and natural resource managers to reduce pest management costs. This should also provide benefits to the environment, biodiversity, and human health.

Related, Current and Previous Work

Related, Current, and Previous Work

Summary of accomplishments of previous research. The Southeastern Region has a strong record of research and implementation in biological control that targets multiple weeds and insect pests. The predecessors of this Multistate Research Project tackled a variety of these problems and improved management of various target pest populations in this region. The initial Southeastern Region regional projects (S-192 and S-238) were focused primarily on importation biological control. The objectives of S-267 were broadened to reflect the widening interests in conservation and augmentation biological control in the Southern Region. The objectives of S-303 were expanded to incorporate novel technologies (e.g., transgenic varieties, cultural practices, selective pesticides) and needs (e.g., suppression of invasive species, alternative pest management tools, cost-effective and environmentally sound pest management) in the Southern Region. S-1034 built upon successes of past projects on biological control in the Southern Region and new technologies and emerging needs. S-1058 further built on the prior multistate collaborations to address emerging weeds and insect pests. S-1073 brought in more members and began addressing issues related to climate change, urbanization, and other contemporary issues. A CRIS search did not reveal similar projects which is why we have been able to recruit researchers from other regions. Below we review the major accomplishments achieved for each key objective (also see Appendix 1 for recent publications), as well as previous work outside of this project in support of the new Objective 4: Assess and incorporate the effects of global change on trophic interactions and biological control.

 The following sections provide examples of past accomplishments and current projects but does not represent every project by every member of the group.


  1. To discover, assess, and release new biological control agents
    Comments: Biological control agents (Pseudophilothrips ichini: Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) for the invasive Brazilian peppertree are being mass reared and released across multiple states in the region. In 2022 – 2023, 1,643,447 P. ichini were released at 87 locations in Florida. Surveys of a subset of the release sites indicate that P. ichini are surviving or have established at 76% of the sites surveyed. Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was field collected, reared, and evaluated as a biological control agent. A system was developed for mass rearing T. pennipes on the southern green stink bug for augmentative biological control of pest stink bugs in specialty crops. Acacia auriculiformis, is a fast-growing, evergreen tree from Australia. Two herbivore species, Calomela intemerata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Trichilogaster sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), have been introduced into containment labs in Florida for study. The weevil, Larinus minutus, is established and effective for reducing the seed of spotted knapweed in Arkansas and other states. Biological control research was conducted against the hemlock woolly adelgid to assess the efficacy and establishment of new imported agents and of endemic arthropod predators and parasitoids. Work has also been conducted to develop management plans combining insecticides, biological control, and silviculture practices.
  2. To develop IPM programs that incorporate biological control components.
    Comments: Urban tree pests have been studied extensively to determine how urbanization and climate change affect their biology and interactions with natural enemies. In addition, work has been conducted to determine how pests and natural enemies use native and non-native trees as habitat and for food resources. Cultural practices such as increasing habitat complexity and reducing impervious surface cover around trees have been investigated to bolster biological control and hinder pests. Ongoing research is investigating the role of turfgrass genetic diversity as an IPM tactic for conserving natural enemies and reducing pest pressure. Thus far, evidence indicates that mixing intra-specific turfgrass cultivars reduces non-turfgrass weed invasion, severity of disease spread, and fall armyworm herbivory and fitness. Current experiments are expanding this work to investigate if cultivar blends increase the abundance or diversity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods, and if that helps regulate insect pest populations. Research in urban landscapes has made progress managing turf pests with cultural practices such as increasing genotypic diversity of turf cultivars and maintaining complex flowering vegetation near pest-prone turf stands. This work also documents benefits to species of conservation concern such as monarchs. The natural enemies associated with oak lecanium scale were sampled annually with tissue collection and sticky cards. A total of 16 parasitoid species (Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae and Pteromalidae), 8 coccinellid species, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera) and Tricorynus confusus were found associated with oak lecanium scale. Coccophagus lycimnia other Cocophagus spp. and a Eunotus sp., Blasthorix sp., and Encyrtus sp. were the major parasitoids responsible for 78% parasitism of nymphs and 66% parasitism in adults. A Pachyneuron sp. was the major hyperparasitoid, and Chilocorus stigma and C. rufilabris was the major predators. Parasitoids were most active in late April and May, while the predators were present year round. Chemical control and biological control techniques were compared in a greenhouse study using potted strawberry plants for chilli thrips management. The findings of this study indicate that biological control agent, Amblyseius swirskii is as effective as spinetoram for 21 days after treatment in suppression of larval chilli thrips but not effective in adult thrips suppression. A collaborative project among members of this group (SC, TN, NY) to investigate the interactions of pest-resistant tomato breeding lines with twospotted spider mites and biological control agents has been completed. The foraging efficacy of the spider mite predator Sthethorus punctillum was not affected by acylsugars presented on the pest-resistant tomato lines. The predatory mite species, namely, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neosieulus californicus and Amblyseius andersoni, exhibited lower foraging efficacy on the resistant lines than on the commercial line. Natural enemies were sampled in multiple cropping systems in Kentucky to characterize their role in biological control, using a combination of molecular data, behavioral experiments and field research. Increased levels of vegetation diversity enhanced biological control services afforded by coccinellids. Soybeans were sampled from late vegetative through reproductive plant growth stages at approximately weekly intervals for predaceous insects and spiders. Interactions between Diaeretiella rapae (canola-aphid parasitoid) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (wheat-aphid parasitoid) were examined in Oklahoma winter canola landscapes. Competition studies were initiated based on sticky trap captures revealing high numbers of wheat-aphid parasitoids in winter canola fields; wheat-aphid parasitoids may be interfering with canola-aphid parasitoids. Initial results indicated that dispersing wheat-aphid parasitoids are disrupting foraging by canola-aphid parasitoids and allowing aphid populations to remain high. Effectiveness of the hydrilla tip mining midge, Cricotopus lebetis Sublette (Diptera: Chironomidae), was assessed in laboratory, semi-field and field studies.
  3. To develop augmentation and conservation biological control tactics
    Comments: Experiments have been conducted to increase the efficacy and economic viability of augmentative biological control in greenhouses. Research has focused on biological control of several mealybug species, scale insects, and European pepper moth. A field experiment in conventional strawberry planted next to strips of five banker plants (cowpea, buckwheat, sun hemp, sweet alyssum, and ornamental pepper) is underway to assess the diversity of predatory insects and augmentative released predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii for thrips management. We explored the different strategies to exploit plant defense mechanisms to improve the biocontrol efficacy of the air potato beetle (Lilioceris cheni) as a biocontrol agent of the invasive plant air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera), using exogenous applications of Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and water as control. The widely distributed predatory lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was studied to examine possible introgression of genes from beetles that are mass-collected in California annually and released in eastern North America for augmentative biological control. Augmentation of Tamarixia radiata and other natural enemies of the Asian citrus psyllid was enhanced by improving colonization, rearing, quality control, distribution, release, and evaluation methods. The efficiency was improved for mass rearing T. radiata by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry and other states and countries for biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Banker plant systems were improved by examining how species and mixtures of species affect parasitoid efficacy and how they interact with each other and thrips prey to affect impact and release rates (Jandricic et al., 2016). Research also was conducted in North Carolina to assess the compatibility of insecticides with biological control organisms.
  4. Assess and incorporate the effects of global change on trophic interactions and biological control.
    Comments: This is a new and novel objective with implications for all aspects of biological control. Global change, particularly climate change and urbanization, have important implications for the survival, fecundity and success of imported classical biological control organisms (Objective 1). Climate change not only affects the biological control organism but also how rapidly its target species can reproduce and spread to new areas. Developing new IPM programs that incorporate biological control (Objective 2) will also be affected by these factors as the distribution of pests and natural enemies can change due to climate and many natural enemies may become less abundant or diverse due to urbanization. In addition, climate change can affect plant and arthropod phenology causing asynchronies that disrupt trophic interactions. Global change factors have similar implications for developing conservation and augmentative biological control tactics (Objective 3). Our group will incorporate these new challenges into our research to maintain the success and relevance of our programs.


Areas requiring further investigation and research mission. The new project will incorporate many of the aspects of previous projects but incorporate global change as a focus of research to maintain relevance and efficacy of our biological control solutions. Some specific areas that require further research are specific to, or prominent in, the Southern Region. In relation to Objective 1, the Southern Region is the entry for many invasive species from Asia and Latin America. Thus, we will maintain our focus on classical biological control to manage these new pests as they become apparent. In relation to Objective 2, many agricultural industries are interested in integrating biological control with conventional management with insecticides. This ‘best of both worlds’ approach is novel and requires new investigation and coordination among researchers. Objective 3 requires new research to improve existing systems, maintain progress on existing research, and to develop biological control for the multitude of new crops that are grown in the Southern Region like hemp. Objective 4 requires extraordinary new research to determine how to adapt previous biological control programs to new conditions and to incorporate global change realities and predictions into new programs. In addition, there is a growing concern on how to improve the quality of agricultural habitats for butterflies, pollinators, and natural enemies for conservation purposes. The membership of our group includes a diversity of productive scientists (Appendix 1) from the participating states in the Southern Region ranging in expertise from taxonomy to applied field evaluations that will target numerous weeds and insect pests. Our stakeholders include farmers, land managers, homeowners, green industries, regulatory agencies, and commodity groups.


  1. To discover, assess, and release new biological control agents
  2. To develop integrated pest management programs that have a biological control component
  3. To develop augmentation and conservation biological control tactics, especially to improve the quality of agricultural habitats for pollinators
  4. Assess and incorporate the effects of global change on trophic interactions and biological control.


This group addresses pest problems throughout the southeastern US in nearly all plant systems including natural areas, rangeland, forests, protected culture, field crops, and ornamental plants. Non-native plant species and non-native herbivores pose risks to native vegetation and natural areas. Classical biological control is one potential solution to reduce non-native plant populations and to protect plants from herbivores. Native and non-native herbivores are threats to agricultural and ornamental plants. Classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control are potential solutions to these pests.

Objective 1: To discover, assess, and release new biological control agents

Classical biological control projects in the Southern region will involve continued foreign exploration, importation and pre-release assessment to manage pests including Brazilian peppertree, Acacia auriculiformis, mealybugs, hemlock woolly adelgid, and new pests that arrive. Surveys and collections will be conducted in the native range of target organisms to determine the diversity and seasonal activity of the natural enemies. Arthropods will be collected with beat sheets, sticky cards, traps, or nets. Host-range tests will be conducted in quarantine to ensure the safety of the candidate agents. Efforts will be made to assess the distribution, efficacy, and host specificity of natural enemies of arthropods including native species and commercially available natural enemies. Risk assessment for weed control projects will follow the guidelines established by the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for Biological Control of Weeds and for arthropod agents the federal (USDA-APHIS) and state requirements. Coordination of mass rearing and releases of agents across the region is another possible area of collaboration.

Objective 2: To develop integrated pest management programs that have a biological control component.

The integration of biological control with other components of IPM is a novel approach that is in favor with producers and land managers. We will use existing IPM programs and determine where biological control could be integrated to achieve benefits of pesticide reduction, human safety, and profits. Researchers will focus on pests and IPM programs within their expertise to identify research topics.

Objective 3: To develop augmentation and conservation biological control tactics

Methods will be developed for mass rearing candidate biological control agents and laboratory colonies will be established of arthropod parasitoids and predators and weed biological control agents. Life table studies will be conducted to obtain basic biological information about survival, fecundity, longevity and developmental time. Comparisons between different rearing conditions will be performed with an analysis of different demographic parameters. These methods are all required to study the production and efficacy of augmentative biological control organisms and best practices. Conservation biological control will be developed using established methods of increasing habitat complexity and increasing food resources for natural enemies. These may include intercropping, flowering field borders, reducing insecticide use and other changes to growing conditions and plant diversity that benefit natural enemies and pollinators.

Objective 4: Assess and incorporate the effects of global change on trophic interactions and biological control.

This work will be conducted using many different ways to manipulate climate and other global change factors. These include research in urban heat islands and in proximity to cities, using latitude and altitude as proxies for climate change, greenhouse research, growth chamber research, and other methods yet to be developed. The consequences of climate urbanization and other factors on trophic interactions, phenology, life history, and the efficacy of biological control will be assessed. Climate change research for pests in natural areas and forests, agricultural systems, and urban and ornamental systems will be considered. Frequency and severity of disturbances due extreme climatic events is also an important topic of research.

Measurement of Progress and Results


  • Outputs will be communicated through peer-reviewed publications, individual reporting, and collective annual reporting as part of the regional project. Another key component of our outputs is conference symposia and extension presentations to stakeholders. All of our members are asked to speak at local, regional, national and international conferences to provide information on biological control. Through this regional project we will annually compile publications and presentations to help organize, consolidate and communicate biological control information to the southern U.S. Our members also use social media to disseminate information to stakeholders and document progress.

Outcomes or Projected Impacts

  • Obj. 1. Impacts will include protection of natural areas from non-native vegetation and arthropod pests, reduction of pesticide use and associated risks to people, other non-targets, and the environment, increased profits for agricultural producers based on reduction of pest damage and management costs.
  • Obj. 2. Impacts will include reduction of pesticide use as biological control becomes prominent in IPM programs, greater knowledge among growers about biological control and IPM, greater profit due to more effective and sustainable pest management and less crop damage.
  • Obj. 3. Impacts are similar to those of other objectives but also include conservation of pollinators, butterflies, and arthropod diversity generally as habitats are established for the benefit of natural enemies. Synergy between IPM, biological control, and conservation is a unique aspect of our project impacts.
  • Obj. 4. Impacts will be greater knowledge and predictive power of how global change factors can affect biological control. This should generate impacts across all areas of our project as classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control are adapted to current and future conditions.


(2024):Objective 1: To discover, assess, and release new biological control agents. The time required for discovery, testing, and permitting of new classical biological control agents is difficult to predict. Challenges to a specific timeline with milestones include challenges discovering and rearing foreign natural enemies, finding different natural enemy populations, permitting and compliance with other regulations, repeating the process with other natural enemies if the first candidates are not successful. That said, we plan to make progress in the first 2 years improving biological control of the plants and arthropods outlined above and in new systems and targeting new pests as they arise. We anticipate initiating several new programs during the term of this project targeting new pests.

(2025):Objective 2: To develop integrated pest management programs that have a biological control component. Milestones for this objective will be based on the number of IPM programs that are adapted to include biological control components. We anticipate making progress in the first year or two making changes to well established IPM programs such as those for greenhouse pests and field crop pests which are well established. By the end of this project we plan to have IPM programs in forests (e.g. hemlock woolly adelgid), field crops (e.g. stink bugs), ornamentals (e.g. European pepper moth, mealybugs, thrips), and other systems established with biological control components.

(2027):Objective 3: To develop augmentation and conservation biological control tactics. Milestones for this objective will be the number and success of new augmentative and conservation biological control programs that have been developed and the number of existing programs that have been improved based on new research and new environmental factors such as climate change.

(2028):Objective 4: Assess and incorporate the effects of global change on trophic interactions and biological control. Milestones will be the greater efficacy of biological control programs that take into account the effects of global change compared to those that do not.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Outreach Plan

Results of the project will be made available to the following target audiences: university and USDA scientists, university Extension specialists, county and multi-county Extension agents, post-doctoral scientists, graduate students, undergraduate students, agricultural producers and consultants, citizen scientists, landowners, forest and land managers, Non-native Pest Plant Councils, agricultural industry and environmental groups, state and federal agencies (NIFA, USFS, NRCS, NPS), and the general public. Biological control information will be disseminated via Extension publications, trainings, grower meetings, papers at professional society meetings, refereed journal articles, newsletters, trade journal articles, short videos, fact sheets, field demonstrations, invasive species workshops, outreach activities, university seminars, presentations at professional society meetings, websites, social media, and field, email, and telephone consultations.



The Multistate Research Project is coordinated by a technical committee composed of an administrative advisor (non-voting), NIFA Representative (non-voting), one official (appointed by the SAES director) and additional voluntary technical representatives for each participating SAES, technical representatives from 1890 universities, and volunteers from participating USDA laboratories and other research agencies appointed by appropriate administrators. SAES-designated technical committee members are limited to one vote on matters of major importance regardless of the number of representatives from an institution; however, all representatives are allowed to vote on matters that the voting members feel should be decided by all.

All members of the technical committee are eligible for office, regardless of sponsoring agency affiliation. The chair, in consultation with the administrative advisor, will notify the technical committee members of the time and place of meetings (according to the suggestions of the technical committee members), prepare the agenda, and preside at meetings of the technical committee and executive members. The chair and secretary will be responsible for preparing an annual report for the regional project and having it posted on the NIMSS website. The secretary will assist the chair and preside in the chair's absence, record and distribute the minutes, and perform other duties as requested by the technical committee or the administrative advisor. The secretary will be elected for a one-year term by the voting members of the technical committee and will succeed the chair who has served for one or more years.

The technical committee will meet annually to discuss progress, as well as propose and refine research coordination for all objectives. Additionally, emerging pest problems will be discussed and new projects developed in response to a need for multistate collaboration. Summaries of the past year's research from each SAES will be exchanged and placed on the NIMSS website, research plans outlined, the next meeting location and time decided, and a secretary elected. When possible and of benefit, annual meetings will be held jointly with related regional technical committees. The executive committee (chair, past chair, secretary and administrative advisor) has authority to conduct business between annual meetings and perform other duties as requested by the technical committee, including writing and submitting a replacement project every five years.


Projected Participation

We have members from around the Southern region and even outside of the Southern region (https://www.nimss.org/appendix_e/project?id=18482).



Participants: Adam Dale, Carey Minteer, Norm Leppla, Sriyanka Lahiri, Phil Hahn, Lance Osborne, Cindy McKenzie, M.Z. Ahmed, E. Schoeller, Vivek Kumar, James Cuda, Pasco Avery, Nicole Quinn

Institutions: University of Florida, UF/IFAS Mid-Florida REC, UF/IFAS Tropical REC, UF/IFAS Indian River REC, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC



Participants: Jason M. Schmidt and William E. Snyder

Institutions: University of Georgia



Participants: Rodrigo Diaz, Korey Pham, Logan Herbert, Carlos Wiggins. Veronica Manrique, Todd Johnson

Institutions: Louisiana State University, Southern University, Baton Rouge



Participants: Steve Young

Institutions: USDA ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center


North Carolina:

Participants: Steven Frank

Institutions: North Carolina State University (Main Campus), Mountain Research Station, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station.



Participants: Kristopher Giles, Tom Royer

Institutions: Oklahoma State University


South Carolina:

Participants: Tom Bilbo

Institutions: Clemson University



Participants: Jerome Grant, Rafael Ferreira dos Santos, Reza Hajimorad, James Parkman, Laura Russo, Paris Lambdin

Institutions: University of Tennessee



Participants: Anjel Helms, Henry Fadamiro, Michael Brewer

Institutions: Texas A&M University



Participants: Bruce Parker

Institutions: University of Vermont


West Virginia:

Participants: Carlos Quesada

Institutions: West Virginia University

Literature Cited

Recent Publications:

Ahmed, M.Z., McKenzie, C.L., Revynthi, A.R., Evans, G.A., Mannion, C., and Osborne, L. 2022. Pest status, survey of natural enemies and a management plan for the whitefly Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 11:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmac007

Bogal, Mesfin, Shova Mishra, Kendal Stacey, Lillie Rooney, Paula Barreto, Gina Marie Bishop, Katherine Lyne Bossert, Kalista Madison Bremer, Daniel Bustamante, Lila Chan, Quan Chau, Julian Cordo, Alyssa Diaz, Jordan Hacker, Lily Hadaegh, Taryn Hibshman, Kimberly Lastra, Fion Lee, Alexandra Mattia, Bao Nguyen, Gretchen Overton, Victoria Reis, Daniel Rhodes, Emily Roeder, Muhamed Rush, Oscar Salichs, Mateo Seslija, Nicholas Stylianou, Vivek Vemugunta, Min Yun, Anthony Auletta, Norman Leppla, Peter DiGennaro. 2023. First description of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and associated host preference of Trichopoda pennipes, a parasitoid of Nezara viridula. Insects. (in press)


Borden MA, Benda ND, Bean EZ, Dale AG. 2022. Effects of soil mitigation on lawn-dwelling invertebrates following residential development. Journal of Urban Ecology. 8(1) 1-10.


Bowers, K. (G), Hight, S., Wheeler, G.W., and C.R. Minteer. 2022. Ecological host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), a biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia. Biological Control, 172: 104976. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2022.104976.

Clark, T.J., P.G. Hahn, E. Brelsford, J. Francois, N. Hayes, B. Larkin, P. Ramsey, and D.E. Pearson. Preventing a series of unfortunate events: using qualitative models to improve conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 59:2322-2332.

Duan, J.J., Crandall, R.S., Grosman, D.M., Schmude, J.M., Quinn, N., Chandler, J.L. and Elkinton, J.S., 2023. Effects of emamectin benzoate trunk injections on protection of neighboring ash trees against emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and on established biological control agents. Journal of Economic Entomology, p. 74.

Duan, J.J., Gould, J.R., Quinn, N.F., Petrice, T.R., Slager, B.H., Poland, T.M., Bauer, L.S., Rutledge, C.E., Elkinton, J.S. and Van Driesche, R.G., 2023. Protection of North American ash against emerald ash borer with biological control: ecological premises and progress toward success. BioControl, 68(2), pp.87-100.

Griesheimer, J.L. (G), Gaffke, A.M., Minteer, C.R., Mass, J.L., Hight, S., and X. Martini. In press. N press*. Attraction of the Air Potato Leaf Beetle, Lilioceris cheni, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to leaf volatiles of the Air Potato, Dioscorea bulbifera, in a wind tunnel. Journal of Chemical Ecology.

Kariuki, E.M., Lovo, E.E., Price, T., Parikh, V., Duren, E.B., Avery, P.B., and C.R. Minteer. 2022. The consumption and survival rate of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on air potato leaves exposed to Cordyceps javanica (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). Florida Entomologist, 105: 258-261. DOI: 10.1653/024.105.0313.

Joseph D. Montemayor, Hugh A. Smith, Natalia A. Peres, Bruno Rossitto De Marchi, Sriyanka Lahiri. 2023. Is UV-C light compatible with biological control of twospotted spider mite? Biological Control. Volume 183, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2023.105269.

Olabiyi, David, Eric Middleton, Muhammad Z. Ahmed, Lance Osborne, Cindy Mckenzie, and Lauren Diepenbrock. 2023. Hibiscus Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) – Biology, Host Plants, Current Management Practices, and a Field Guide for North America  https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmac029.

Penca, C. J., N. C. Goltz, A. C. Hodges, J. E. Eger, N. C. Leppla, and T. R. Smith. 2022. Use of pyriproxyfen to induce oogenesis in diapausing Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), and evaluation of pyriproxyfen-induced eggs for rearing the parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae ). In Rearing Techniques for Biocontrol Agents of Insects, Mites, and Weeds (Special Collection). Maria Luisa Dindo; N. C. Leppla, A. Coelho, Jr., and J. R. P. Parra (Eds.) Insects.

Prade, P., Cuda, J.P., and C.R. Minteer. 2022. Investigating the potential for plant-mediated interactions between two biological control agents for Brazilian peppertree. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 32: 731-740. DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2022.2045473.

Quinn, N. F., J. J. Duan, and J. Elkinton. 2022. Monitoring the impact of introduced emerald ash borer parasitoids: factors affecting Oobius agrili dispersal and parasitization of sentinel host eggs. BioControl. 67: 387–394.


Quinn, N. F., J.S. Gould, C.E. Rutledge, A. Fassler, J.S. Elkinton, and J.J. Duan. 2022. Spread and phenology of Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), introduced parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Biological Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2021.104794

Sanderson, C., Zonneveld, R., Smith, M.C., Minteer, C.R., and M. Purcell. in press. Life history of the leaf beetle Calomela intemerata (Lea) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent for Acacia auriculiformis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.

Schoeller, E.N., McKenzie, C.L., and Osborne, L.S.  Control of Echinothrips americanus on lima bean by Franklinothrips vespiformis crawford using supplemental food.  BioControl. 2022.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-022-10151-9

Schoeller, E.N., McKenzie, C.L., and Osborne, L.S.  Chilli thrips rose management using an Amblyseius swirskii or Amblydromalus limonicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) pepper banker plant. Journal of Applied Entomology. 00:1-12. 2022. 

Telmadarrehei, T, Kariuki, E.M., van Santen, E., Le Falchier, E.J., and C.R. Minteer. 2023. The effects of soil type and moisture on the survival of Pseudophilothrips ichini (Hood). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 33: 214-326. DOI:10.1080/09583157.2023.2185574

Wheeler, G.S., Minteer, C.R., Rohrig, E., Steininger, Nestle, R., Halbritter, D., Leidi, J., Rayamajhi, M., and E. Le Falchier. 2022. Release and persistence of the Brazilian peppertree biological control agent Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 105:225-230. DOI: 10.1653/024.105.0308.

Frank, S.D., Backe, K. 2022.Effects of urban heat islands on temperate forest trees and arthropods. Current Forestry Reports. doi.org/10.1007/s40725-022-00178-7.


Wilson, C.J., Frank, S.D. 2022. Scale insects support natural enemies in both landscape trees and shrubs below them. Environmental Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvac081.


Dale, A. G., & Frank, S.D. 2022. Water availability determines tree growth and physiological response to biotic and abiotic stress in a temperate North American urban forest. Forests, 13(7), 1012.


Chahal, K., R. Gazis, W. Klingeman, P. Lambdin, J. Grant, M. Windham, and D. Hadziabdic. 2022. Differential Virulence among Geosmithia morbida Isolates Collected Across the U.S. Occurrence Range of Thousand Cankers Disease. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change - Special Edition on Forest Pathology in Changing Climate, Section Pests, Pathogens and Invasions, https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2022.726388


Wright, C., Helms, A.M., Bernal, J.S., Grunseich, J.M., Medina, R.F. 2022. Aphelinus Nigritus Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Preference for Sorghum Aphid, Melanaphis Sorghi Theobald (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Honeydew Is Stronger in Johnson Grass, Sorghum Halepense, Than in Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor. Insects 14 (1). https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14010010

Lin, P.A., Paudel, S., Zainuddin, N.B., Tan, C.W., Helms, A.M., Ali, J.G., Felton, G.W. 2022. Low water availability enhances volatile-mediated direct defenses but disturbs indirect defenses against herbivores. Journal of Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13987.


Thompson, M.N., Medina, R.F., Helms, A.M., Bernal J.S. 2022. Improving natural enemy selection in biological control through greater attention to chemical ecology and host-associated differentiation of target arthropod pests. Insects 13, 160 https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020160

Galo, D., Escalante, C., Diaz, R., Hartgerink, J. E. and Valverde R. A. 2022. Phytopythium chamaehyphon causing corm and root rot of uncultivated taro (Colocasia esculenta). European Journal of Plant Patholology 163, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-022-02512-y.


Kang, I, B.E. Wilson, B. Carter, and R. Diaz. 2022. A new detection of the invasive Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from Georgia in the United States based on morphological and molecular data. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 13: 17.


Wahl, C. R. Diaz, and M. Kaller. 2022. Optimizing Berlese funnel extraction for population estimates of Cyrtobagous salviniae from Salvinia molesta. Biocontrol Science and Technology 32: 1232-1247.


Matos Franco, G., Chen, Y, Doyle V. P., Rehner, S. A. and R. Diaz. 2022. Mortality of the crapemyrtle bark scale (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) by commercial biopesticides under greenhouse and field conditions. Biological Control 175: 105161


Schneider, S. A., Broadley, H. J., Andersen, J. C., Elkinton, J. S., Hwang, S., Liu, C., Noriyuki, S., Park, J., and Dao, H. T. ,  Lewis, M. L., Gould, J. R., Hoelmer, K. A., and R. Diaz. 2022. An invasive population of Roseau Cane Scale in the Mississippi River Delta, USA originated from northeastern China. Biological Invasions 24:2735–2755



Grodowitz, M. J., Elliot, B., Diaz, R., Boyette, D., Weaver, M., and Stetina, K. 2022. Impact of the fungal pathogen, SPFG, on the Salvinia molesta Mitchell biological control agent, Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 60: 48–52.


Wahl, C., Kaller, M. and R. Diaz. 2022. Optimising Berlese funnel extraction for population estimates of adult Cyrtobagous salviniae from Salvinia molesta. Biological Control Science and Technology. 32: 1232-1247. https://doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2022.2108760


Matos Franco, G., Chen, Y, Doyle V. P., Rehner, S. A. and R. Diaz. 2022. Will the application of biocontrol fungi disrupt predation of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae by coccinellids? Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 193: 107789.


Chambless, KN, KA Cornell, R Crespo, WE Snyder and JP Owen. 2022. Diversity and prevalence of ectoparasites on poultry from open environment farms in Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. Journal of Medical Entomology 59:1837-1841.


Crossley, MS, TD Meehan, MD Moran, J Glassberg, WE Snyder and AK Davis. 2022. Opposing global change drivers counterbalance trends in breeding North American monarch butterflies. Global Change Biology 28:4726–4735.


Crossley, MS, CE Latimer, CM Kennedy and WE Snyder. in press. Past and recent farming degrades aquatic insect genetic diversity. Molecular Ecology,.


Smith, OM, EM Olimpi, KA Cornell, L Frishkoff, M Jay-Russell, N Navarro-Gonzalez, TD Northfield, T Bowles, A Edworthy, J Eilers, Z Fu, K Garcia, DJ Gonthier, MS Jones, CM Kennedy, CE Latimer, JP Owen, C Sato, JM Taylor, EE Wilson-Rankin, WE Snyder and DS Karp. 2022. A trait-based framework for predicting food safety risks associated with wild birds. Ecological Applications 32:e2523.


Snyder, GB, OM Smith, EG Chapman, MS Crossley, DW Crowder, Z Fu, JD Harwood, AS Jensen, KL Krey, CA Lynch, GB Snyder and WE Snyder. 2022. Alternative prey mediate intraguild predation in the open field. Pest Management Science 78:3939-3946.


Crossley, MS, D Lagos-Kutz, TS Davis, GL Hartman, DJ Voegtlin and WE Snyder. 2022. Precipitation change accentuates or reverses temperature effects on aphid activity. Ecological Applications 32:e2593.


Lynch, CA, OM Smith, EG Chapman, MS Crossley, DW Crowder, Z Fu, JD Harwood, AS Jensen, KL Krey, GB Snyder and WE Snyder. 2022. Alternative prey and farming system mediate predation of Colorado potato beetles by generalists. Pest Management Science 78:3769-3777.


Smith, OM, EG Chapman, MS Crossley, DW Crowder, Z Fu, JD Harwood, AS Jensen, KL Krey, CA Lynch, GB Snyder and WE Snyder. 2022. Alternative prey and intraguild predators mediate thrips consumption by generalists. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 10:752159. 


Cornell, KA, OM Smith, R Crespo, MS Jones, WE Snyder and JP Owen. 2022. Prevalence patterns for enteric parasites of chickens managed in open environments of the Western United States. Avian Diseases 66:60–68.


Taylor, JM, OM Smith, A Edworthy, CM Kennedy, CE Latimer, JP Owen, EE Wilson-Rankin and WE Snyder. 2022. Bird predation and surrounding landscapes together shape arthropod communities on broccoli. Ornithological Applications 124:duac005.


Olimpi, EM, K Garcia, DJ Gonthier, C Kremen, WE Snyder, EE Wilson-Rankin and DS Karp. 2022. Farmland diversification shapes trade-offs and synergies in bird-mediated ecosystem services and disservices. Journal of Applied Ecology 59:898-908.


Smith, OM, CM Kennedy, A Echeverri, DS Karp, CE Latimer, JM Taylor, EE Wilson-Rankin, JP Owen and WE Snyder. 2022. Complex landscapes stabilize farm bird communities and their ecosystem services. Journal of Applied Ecology 59:927-941.


Kaldor, A. D., McHugh, J. V., Schmidt, J. M., Luo, X., Gariepy, T. D., & Blaauw, B. R. 2022. First documented wild population of the “Hunter Fly”, Coenosia attenuata Stein (Diptera: Muscidae) in North America. Insects, 13, 970.


Kheirodin, A., Simmons, A. M., & Schmidt, J. M. 2022. Ranking common predators of Bemisia tabaci in Georgia (USA) agricultural landscapes with diagnostic PCR: implications of primer specific post-feeding detection time. Biocontrol, 67, 497-511.


Kiobia, D. O., Mwitta, C. J., Fue, K. G., Schmidt, J. M., Riley, D. G., & Rains, G. C. 2023. A review of successes and impeding challenges of iot-based insect pest detection systems for estimating agroecosystem health and productivity of cotton. sensors, 23, 4127.


Slusher, E. K., Acebes-Doria, A. L., Cottrell, T., & Schmidt, J. M. 2022. Aphids and associated parasitoids exhibit vertical canopy distribution differences in pecans. Biocontrol, 1-8.


Wu, S., Toews, M. D., Cottrell, T. E., Schmidt, J. M., & Shapiro-Ilan, D. I. 2022. Toxicity of Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus bovienii bacterial metabolites to pecan aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 194, 107806.

Brewer, M.J., N.C. Elliott, I.L. Esquivel, A.L. Jacobson, A.M. Faris, A. Szcepaniec, B.H. Elkins, J.W. Gordy, A.J. Pekrick, H. Wang, T.E. Korewski, K.L. Giles, C.N. Jessie and W.E. Grant. 2022. Natural enemies, mediated by landscape and weather conditions, shape response of the sorghum agroecosystem of North America to the invasive aphid Melanaphis sorghi. Frontiers in Insect Science. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/finsc.2022.830997/full

Danso, J.K., G.P. Opit, B.H. Noden, and K.L. Giles. 2022. Estimating discriminating doses of phosphine for adults of eight species of psocids of genera Liposcelis (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) and Lepinotus (Psocodea: Trogiidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 99, 102025.


Land Grant Participating States/Institutions


Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

Log Out ?

Are you sure you want to log out?

Press No if you want to continue work. Press Yes to logout current user.

Report a Bug
Report a Bug

Describe your bug clearly, including the steps you used to create it.