WERA27: Potato Variety Development

(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)

Status: Active

WERA27: Potato Variety Development

Duration: 10/01/2021 to 09/30/2026

Administrative Advisor(s):

NIFA Reps:

Non-Technical Summary

Statement of Issues and Justification

During the last five years, the potato industry has faced a wide variety of challenges, including changing trends in consumer preferences, new environmental regulations, loss of crop-protection chemicals, increased input costs, new pest and disease pressures, and unpredictable growing conditions. Collectively, these factors have increased the potato grower's risks and decreased his profits. New improved potato varieties are the most productive and cost effective approach for addressing these challenges and meeting the demands of the industry and the consumer. New varieties provide substantial improvements in yield, quality, marketability, and improved sustainability by reducing inputs for disease and pest resistance and increasing fertility and water use efficiency. The group of researchers and industry personnel who participate in WERA27 serves the potato industry and consumers by conducting activities critical to providing a sustainable, healthy, inexpensive food supply, which also contributes to our nation's food security.

The states represented by WERA27 (California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Texas) produce over two-thirds of all potatoes grown in the U.S with a majority coming from the Pacific Northwest. WERA27 is composed of a regionally diverse interdisciplinary team of breeders, geneticists, physiologists, pathologists, agronomists, biotechnologists, entomologists, weed scientists, virologists, extension specialists, economists, growers, and other industry representatives. This team is crucial to U.S. potato variety development and in turn, sustainability of the U.S. potato industry. The team member’s combined participation allows for complete testing of improved germplasm that comes from federal and state breeding programs. Coordinated activities include parental identification and germplasm enhancement, controlled crosses, seedling production, selection and evaluation of germplasm, initial seed increase, complete in-field and postharvest management research, advanced field and laboratory evaluations, processing quality and culinary attribute evaluation, specific growing region agronomic recommendation development, and screening for resistance or susceptibility to diseases using conventional and molecular marker approaches.

Russet Burbank, the predominant variety for many decades both for processing and fresh markets, has been steadily declining in acreage, largely as a result of the success of varieties developed and evaluated by WERA27 participants. New varieties from this region replacing Russet Burbank production include Ranger Russet, Umatilla Russet, Rio Grande Russet, Russet Nugget, Blazer Russet, Bannock Russet, GemStar Russet, Alturas, Premier Russet, Classic Russet, Clearwater Russet, Alpine Russet, Teton Russet, Sage Russet, Owyhee Russet, Mountain Gem Russet, Payette Russet, and Palisade Russet with newer varieties becoming more popular due to improved performance and quality.

Production of chipping varieties, fresh market red-skinned and specialty varieties (e.g., pigmented flesh and/or colored skin), and fresh market white-skinned varieties similarly has shifted away from one or two dominant varieties to that of numerous varieties, each with improved adaptation to different growing, storage or processing conditions, or market preferences. New varieties from the WERA27 group include: Ivory Crisp, CalWhite, Mazama, Modoc, IdaRose, Mountain Rose, Purple Majesty, Sierra Rose, Purple Pelisse, AmaRosa, and Huckleberry Gold. Yukon Gem, a more disease resistant and better yielding yellow-fleshed variety has increased in acreage in response to increased market demand and is competing well with Yukon Gold.  Breeders in the western region have increased emphasis on yellow-flesh and other pigmented-flesh varieties, which often have higher nutritional value than traditional russets, to fill the growing demand for specialty options in the market. Private European seed companies also have begun to export yellow-flesh varieties, which are common in Europe, to the U.S., facilitated by Plant Variety Protection (PVP) laws that protect their intellectual property rights.

Russet Burbank generally requires very intensive management, including applications of larger amounts of fertilizer, water, and pesticides than newer varieties such as Bannock Russet, Alturas, Clearwater Russet and Classic Russet. The recent movement toward greater sustainability adds urgency to the need for alternative varieties better adapted to low input production.

Russet Norkotah and its later maturing, higher yielding clonal selections or lines, which were released out of the Texas and Colorado potato breeding programs, have become the predominant fresh market varieties in many areas. Russet Norkotah is early maturing with very smooth dark russet-skinned tubers that have good storage characteristics. The tubers are resistant to most physiological disorders, resulting in a high percentage of U.S. No.1 tubers. The early success of the Norkotah lines has been somewhat overshadowed, however, by controversy within the industry regarding the long-term sustainability of all Russet Norkotah clones. Russet Norkotah tubers can be less palatable than many other varieties when consumed as a baked potato, especially after being held in cold storage for long periods. Also, Russet Norkotah and its various clonal selections harbor potato virus Y. Plants display only latent foliar symptoms, making it more difficult for seed potato growers to rogue out, and providing additional inoculum sources for more susceptible varieties.

New varieties need to be evaluated in key production areas and compared to traditional varieties, which is one of the key strengths of the WERA27 cooperative project. Additionally, evaluation of germplasm from a range of sources under varying and ever evolving conditions offers the greatest probability of identifying superior varieties with improved pest resistance and reduced production inputs. Materials that are successful in the Northwest Tri-State (Washington, Oregon, Idaho) and the Southwest Region (Texas, Colorado, California) variety evaluation programs, and material from other programs, are incorporated into the WERA27 evaluation scheme. Combining promising new genetic technologies and wild potato germplasm with traditional breeding efforts has resulted in superior new varieties.

Health considerations including improved nutrition provided by antioxidants and other phytonutrient compounds in potatoes are also being researched as part of the WERA27 program. The formation of acrylamides in fried potatoes has recently caused concern in the fast food industry. In response, new varieties are being developed that target lower sugar and/or asparagine concentrations, which are the major contributors to potato acrylamide formation. Storage conditions, as well as genetic and physiological characteristics have been studied by the WERA27 group in an effort to reduce acrylamide levels in processed potato products. Researchers at the WSU-USDA Prosser research station have also developed breeding efforts involving colored flesh/skin specialty varieties, including germplasm with increased levels of antioxidants. 

Addressing sustainability issues is an important component of the WERA27 group. Some sustainability issues of increasing importance include reducing fungicide applications by developing varieties with late blight and Verticillium resistance, increasing fertilizer and water-use efficiency, and utilizing molecular and other biotechnology breeding tools.  Germplasm with disease and pest resistance are aiming to reduce or eliminate pesticide applications. Examples of this include using native potato material to convey extreme resistance to potato virus Y, developing varieties with Late Blight resistance, and resistance to parasitic nematodes.

Western region breeders work to actively address additional issues including plant variety protection and environmental impacts of potato production.  For the benefit of the potato industry as a whole it is essential that these issues be discussed and strategies developed as a team. It is anticipated that new varieties will provide U.S. growers the ability to meet challenges of a constantly changing market and production conditions to improve economic returns and reduce risk. New varieties will help maintain a healthy, inexpensive food supply for American consumers while improving grower bottom line, and contributing to a more sustainable potato production system.


  1. Develop and exchange information on new potato selections among scientists and industry representatives.
  2. Provide uniform, high-quality seed of advanced clones to participating states for selections to be evaluated in regional trials.
  3. Coordinate studies to optimize cultural management, disease and pest resistance, storage and processing characteristics that may result in new potato selections with minimal environmental impact and optimal usage under growing conditions in each participating state.
  4. Strengthen collaboration with potato processing and fresh pack industries involved in the development and acceptance of new potato selections and releases.
  5. Discuss major potato issues facing the scientific community and industry, and develop recommendations for addressing those concerns.

Procedures and Activities

WERA27 annual meetings provide a unique opportunity for program participants and industry representatives to share information, compare trial results, and discuss issues that impact the region's industry. In addition to annual meetings, participants exchange thoughts and ideas through use of e-mail and several Internet sites. Performance information for most advanced western regional clones is routinely provided at the Central Oregon website (http://www.css.orst.edu/coarc/database.htm), the Washington State University site at http://www.potatoes.wsu.edu), the University of Idaho site at (uidaho.edu/cals/potatoes/varieties), Potato Variety Management Institute site at (www.pvmi.org), and USDA-ARS (www.ars.usda.gov). The annual meetings of WERA27 allow greater efficiency in resource allocation, reduced duplication of effort, effective communication between industry and research scientists, and ideas for new potato research projects to address important issues and upcoming problems.

The WERA27 incorporates federal, university, and industry research elements. Breeders from the USDA/ARS and several universities conduct pre-breeding and basic breeding, incorporate improved germplasm from other ARS and state programs and provide true seed for the variety development effort. ARS workers with the ARS project at Prosser, Washington complete germplasm enhancement activities that provide pest-resistant germplasm to other western breeding projects.

Cooperation by WERA27 participants has extended beyond the original regional variety trial framework. Resistance to many different diseases are being addressed by WERA27 cooperators. All selections and varieties in the regional trial are tested for late blight resistance at Corvallis, Oregon. Common scab and rot diseases are evaluated at Aberdeen, Idaho. Viral resistance for these clones is routinely evaluated at Hermiston, Oregon and Kimberly, Idaho. Hermiston and Aberdeen sites also jointly evaluate early dying and net necrosis reactions in breeding entries. Researchers at Prosser, Washington also screen regional entries for resistance to corky ringspot and Columbia root knot nematode. Improved resistance traits from several sources including native potato species are being incorporated by USDA and state WERA27 breeders into potato germplasm. In recent years, Oregon State University has implemented marker-assisted selection (MAS) approaches to take advantage of tools developed by basic genetics studies and translate them into applied potato breeding.

Additional efforts by state universities provide germplasm and improvement, seedling production, selection, and evaluation, initial seed increase, complete in-field and postharvest management research, field and laboratory evaluations including tolerance to commonly used herbicides, and all aspects of commercialization. Other important activities include evaluating processing quality and culinary attributes, identifying positive and negative traits in new varieties, and developing region specific agronomic recommendations.

The industry provides large-scale evaluation, seed production beyond the initial stages, collaboration in commercialization, and additional financial support. The overall result is unparalleled cooperation and efficiency, with each institution completing the duties for which it is best equipped.

Expected Outcomes and Impacts

  • Anticipated results of the WERA27 cooperative testing program will be superior potato varieties to improve production efficiency and sustainability, reduce pesticide and fertilizer usage, provide better management practices for soil health, improve phytonutritive value, reduce acrylamide levels, contribute to the economic health of the western potato industry and local economies, and maintain reasonable potato prices to consumers throughout the U.S.
  • Continuing work on the improvement of genetic diversity of potato allowing steady gains in the development of improved potato varieties.
  • Publication of multiple research and extension articles related to the joint efforts of the WERA27 participants.
  • Outreach via extension, professional meetings, annual potato grower meetings, and other opportunities to discuss the improved qualities of new varieties and increased sustainability.
  • Cultivate the development of effective industry, state and USDA partnerships and cooperative programs.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Educational Plan

Processing and fresh market industry representatives play a key role in developing, adapting and utilizing the information generated by the coordinated efforts of WERA27. Cooperative Extension specialists and agents/advisors are integral participants in WERA27. Regional trials are often located in grower cooperator fields for field day observations and programs. This type of continued industry participation in WERA27 is essential to the success of the program. Communicating data collected from regional potato variety trials is critical to the success of not only the variety development program, but also the success of the potato industry. Trial results are compiled and communicated at yearly conferences, field days, and through university extension publications to all facets of the potato industry from growers and crop consultants to potato processors and fresh pack operations. Topics presented at regional and national meetings are often a result of discussions held during annual WERA27, Tri-State, and SW Regional group meetings with contributions from scientists, growers, extension, and industry personnel. To provide easy access to variety trial data over many years, results are also published online at https://www.ars.usda.gov/pacific-west-area/aberdeen-id/small-grains-and-potato-germplasm-research/docs/western-regional-tri-state-potato-variety-trial-reports/.


The Standard Governance for this multistate research activity will include the election of a Chair and Secretary. Administrative guidance will be provided by an assigned Administrative Advisor and a NIFA Representative. Additional roles and responsibilities are indicated below.

Administrative Advisor: Liaison with western university directors of the Agricultural Experiment Stations

Chair: Coordinates annual meetings and WERA27 petition renewal

Secretary: Records annual meeting minutes 

Literature Cited

Publications since 2009

Amer, F. S., Reddivari, L., Madiwale, G. P., Stone, M., Holm, D. G., & Vanamala, J. (2014). Effect of Genotype and Storage on Glycoalkaloid and Acrylamide Content and Sensory Attributes of Potato Chips. American Journal of Potato Research, 1-10.

Barnett, B. A., Holm, D. G., Koym, J. W., Wilson, R. G., & Manter, D. K. (2014). Site and Clone Effects on the Potato Root-Associated Core Microbiome and its Relationship to Tuber Yield and Nutrients. American Journal of Potato Research, 1-9.

Bizimungu, B., Holm, D. G., Kawchuk, L. M., Konschuh, M., Schaupmeyer, C., Wahab, J., ... & Lynch, D. R. (2011). Alta Crown: A New Russet Potato Cultivar with Resistance to Common Scab and a Low Incidence of Tubers Deformities. American Journal of Potato Research, 88(1), 72-81.

Blauer, J. M., Knowles, L. O., & Knowles, N. R. (2013). Evidence that tuber respiration is the pacemaker of physiological aging in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 32(4), 708-720.

Blauer, J. M., Knowles, L. O., & Knowles, N. R. (2013). Manipulating Stem Number, Tuber Set and Size Distribution in Specialty Potato Cultivars. American journal of potato research, 90(5), 470-496.

Blauer, J. M., Kumar, G. N., Knowles, L. O., Dhingra, A., & Knowles, N. R. (2013). Changes in ascorbate and associated gene expression during development and storage of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.).Postharvest Biology and Technology, 78, 76-91.

Bohl, W. H., Stark, J. C., & McIntosh, C. S. (2011). Potato Seed Piece Size, Spacing, and Seeding Rate Effects on Yield, Quality and Economic Return. American journal of potato research, 88(6), 470-478.

Bohl, W.H., Love, S.L., T. Salaiz, T. (2014). Hill shape effect on yield, quality, stolon length and tuber orientation of two potato cultivars. American journal of potato research 91 (5):566-572.

Brown, C. R., et al. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: calcium and magnesium. American journal of potato research 89.4 (2012): 255-261.

Brown, C. R., et al. Stability and Broad-Sense Heritability of Mineral Content in Potato: Copper and Sulfur. American Journal of Potato Research (2014): 1-7.

Brown, C. R., et al. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: potassium and phosphorus. American journal of potato research 90.6 (2013): 516-523.

Brown, C. R., Mojtahedi, H., Crosslin, J. M., James, S., Charlton, B., Novy, R. G., ... & Hamm, P. (2009). Characterization of resistance to Corky Ringspot Disease in potato: A case for resistance to infection by Tobacco Rattle Virus. American journal of potato research, 86(1), 49-55.

Brown, C. R., Vales, I., Yilma, S., James, S., Charlton, B., Culp, D., & Navarre, R. (2012). AmaRosa, a Red Skinned, Red Fleshed Fingerling with High Phytonutrient Value. American journal of potato research, 89(4), 249-254.

Brown, Charles R., et al. AmaRosa, a Red Skinned, Red Fleshed Fingerling with High Phytonutrient Value." American journal of potato research 89.4 (2012): 249-254.

Brown, Charles Raymond, et al. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: Iron. American journal of potato research 87.4 (2010): 390-396.

Brown, Charles Raymond, et al. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: Zinc. American journal of potato research 88.3 (2011): 238-244.

Butler, C. D., Gonzalez, B., Manjunath, K. L., Lee, R. F., Novy, R. G., Miller, J. C., & Trumble, J. T. (2011). Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid,i Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus i Liberibacter psyllaurous. Crop Protection, 30 (9), 1233-1238.

Butler, C. D., Novy, R. G., Miller, J. C., & Trumble, J. T. (2010). Alternative strategies: plant resistance and biological control. 2010 Zebra Chip Reporting Session, 69.

Charlton, B. A., Ingham, R. E., David, N. L., Wade, N. M., & McKinley, N. (2010). Effects of in-furrow and water-run oxamyl on Paratrichodorus allius and corky ringspot disease of potato in the Klamath basin. Journal of nematology, 42(1), 1.

Diaz-Montano, J., Vindiola, B. G., Drew, N., Novy, R. G., Miller Jr, J. C., & Trumble, J. T. (2013). Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae). American Journal of Potato Research, 1-5.

Eldredge, E. P., Holmes, Z. A., Mosley, A. R., Shock, C. C., & Stieber, T. D. Potato Tuber Stem End Reducing Sugar and Fry Color Response to Transient Water Stress. Redacted for Privacy, 61.

Falen, C. L., Westermann, D. T., Stark, J. C., & Tindall, T. A. (2010). Dairy compost utilization in cropping systems. Alternative biological treatment of manure, Mario De Haro Marti, Mireille Chahine, 19.

Gray, S., De Boer, S., Lorenzen, J., Karasev, A., Whitworth, J., Nolte, P., ... & Xu, H. (2010). Potato virus Y: an evolving concern for potato crops in the United States and Canada. Plant Disease, 94(12), 1384-1397.

Gray, S., Whitworth, J., Xu, H., Singh, R., & Karasev, A. (2013). NAPPO Science and Technology Documents.

Green, A. R., Nissen, M. S., Kumar, G. M., Knowles, N. R., & Kang, C. (2013). Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Multicystatin and the Significance of Core Domains. The Plant Cell Online, 25(12), 5043-5052.

Greenway, Gina A., et al. An analysis of organic potato demand in the US. American journal of potato research 88.2 (2011): 184-189.

Greenway, Gina A., et al. Fresh potato and meat preferences by US region. Journal of Food Distribution Research 41.2 (2010).

Hamm, P. B., et al. Potato cultivars differ in current season potato virus Y (PVY) infection. American journal of potato research 87.1 (2010): 19-26.

Haynes, K. G., Wanner, L. A., Thill, C. A., Bradeen, J. M., Miller, J., Novy, R. G., ... & Vinyard, B. T. (2010). Common scab trials of potato varieties and advanced selections at three US locations. American journal of potato research, 87(3), 261-276.

Hu, X., Karasev, A. V., Brown, C. J., & Lorenzen, J. H. (2009). Sequence characteristics of potato virus Y recombinants. Journal of General Virology, 90(12), 3033-3041.

Hu, X., Karasev, A. V., Brown, C. J., & Lorenzen, J. H. (2009). Sequence characteristics of potato virus Y recombinants. Journal of General Virology, 90(12), 3033-3041.

Kalita, D., Holm, D. G., & Jayanty, S. S. (2013). Role of polyphenols in acrylamide formation in the fried products of potato tubers with colored flesh. Food Research International, 54(1), 753-759.

Karasev, A. V., Hu, X., Brown, C. J., Kerlan, C., Nikolaeva, O. V., Crosslin, J. M., & Gray, S. M. (2011). Genetic diversity of the ordinary strain of Potato virus Y (PVY) and origin of recombinant PVY strains. Phytopathology, 101(7), 778-785.

Karasev, A. V., Hu, X., Brown, C. J., Kerlan, C., Nikolaeva, O. V., Crosslin, J. M., & Gray, S. M. (2011). Genetic diversity of the ordinary strain of Potato virus Y (PVY) and origin of recombinant PVY strains. Phytopathology, 101(7), 778-785.

Karasev, A. V., Hu, X., Brown, C. J., Kerlan, C., Nikolaeva, O. V., Crosslin, J. M., & Gray, S. M. (2011, June). Genetic diversity of Potato virus Y O and origin of recombinant PVY strains. In Phytopathology (Vol. 101, No. 6, pp. S88-S88). 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St Paul, Mn 55121 Usa: Amer Phytopathological Soc.

Karasev, A. V., Hu, X., Brown, C. J., Kerlan, C., Nikolaeva, O. V., Crosslin, J. M., & Gray, S. M. (2011, June). Genetic diversity of Potato virus Y O and origin of recombinant PVY strains. In Phytopathology (Vol. 101, No. 6, pp. S88-S88). 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St Paul, Mn 55121 Usa: Amer Phytopathological Soc.

Karasev, A. V., Nikolaeva, O. V., Hu, X., Sielaff, Z., Whitworth, J., Lorenzen, J. H., & Gray, S. M. (2010). Serological properties of ordinary and necrotic isolates of Potato virus Y: a case study of PVYN misidentification. American Journal of Potato Research, 87(1), 1-9.

Kelley, K. B., Whitworth, J. L., & Novy, R. G. (2009). Mapping of the potato leafroll virus resistance gene, from identifies interchromosomal translocations among its E-genome chromosomes 4 and 9 relative to the A-genome of L. sect. Molecular Breeding, 23(3), 489-500.

Kelling, K. A., Rosen, C. J., Stark, J. C., & Essah, S. Y. (2014). Proceedings from the 2012 PAA Symposium: Potato Phosphorus Management and Utilization for Today and Tomorrow. American Journal of Potato Research, 91 (2), 119-120.

Knowles, Lisa O., and N. Richard Knowles. Toxicity and metabolism of exogenous α, β-unsaturated carbonyls in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 60.44 (2012): 11173-11181.

Knowles, N. R., et al. How does In-season Heat Affect Postharvest Physiology & Quality? January 27th-30th.

Knowles, N. Richard, Edward P. Driskill Jr, and Lisa O. Knowles. Sweetening responses of potato tubers of different maturity to conventional and non-conventional storage temperature regimes. Postharvest Biology and Technology 52.1 (2009): 49-61.

Külen, O., Stushnoff, C., & Holm, D. G. (2013). Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(10), 2437-2444.

Külen, O., Stushnoff, C., Davidson, R. D., & Holm, D. G. (2011). Gibberellic acid and ethephon alter potato minituber bud dormancy and improve seed tuber yield. American journal of potato research, 88(2), 167-174.

Kumar, GN Mohan, et al. Age-induced loss of wound-healing ability in potato tubers is partly regulated by ABA. Planta 232.6 (2010): 1433-1445.

Lin, Y. H., et al. Molecular characterization of two Potato virus S isolates from late-blight-resistant genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Archives of virology 154.11 (2009): 1861-1863.

Lin, Y., et al. Biological and molecular properties of Potato virus S from late blight resistant potato. Phytopathology. Vol. 99. No. 6. 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St Paul, Mn 55121 Usa: Amer Phytopathological Soc, 2009.

Madiwale, G. P., Reddivari, L., Holm, D. G., & Vanamala, J. (2011). Storage elevates phenolic content and antioxidant activity but suppresses antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of colored-flesh potatoes against human colon cancer cell lines. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 59(15), 8155-8166.

Madiwale, G. P., Reddivari, L., Stone, M., Holm, D. G., & Vanamala, J. (2012). Combined Effects of Storage and Processing on the Bioactive Compounds and Pro-Apoptotic Properties of Color-Fleshed Potatoes in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60(44), 11088-11096.

Manter, D. K., Delgado, J. A., Holm, D. G., & Stong, R. A. (2010). Pyrosequencing reveals a highly diverse and cultivar-specific bacterial endophyte community in potato roots. Microbial ecology, 60(1), 157-166.

McCue, K. F., Ponciano, G., Rockhold, D. R., Whitworth, J. L., Gray, S. M., Fofanov, Y., & Belknap, W. R. (2012). Generation of PVY Coat Protein siRNAs in Transgenic Potatoes Resistant to PVY. American journal of potato research, 89(5), 374-383.

Miller, J. C., Scheuring, D. C., Koym, J., Turner, S. D., Novy, R. G., Trumble, J. T., ... & Porter, P. (2010). Progress in identifying host plant tolerance/resistance to ZC in potato germplasm. 2010 Zebra Chip Reporting Session, 96.

Mooney, S., Chen, L., Kühn, C., Navarre, R., Knowles, N. R., & Hellmann, H. (2013). Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato. BioMed Research International, 2013.

Munyaneza, J. E., Buchman, J. L., Sengoda, V. G., Fisher, T. W., Bester, G., Hoopes, R., ... & Nordgaard, J. (2010). Potato variety screening trial for zebra chip resistance under controlled field cage conditions. 2010 Zebra Chip Reporting Session, 200.

Narasimhamoorthy, B., Zhao, L. Q., Liu, X., Essah, S. Y. C., Holm, D. G., & Greaves, J. A. (2013). Effect of Harvest Date on PI2, Total Protein, TGA Content and Tuber Performance in Potato. American journal of potato research, 90(6), 561-569.

Navarre, Duroy A., et al. Changes in potato phenylpropanoid metabolism during tuber development. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 65 (2013): 89-101.

Nissen, Mark S., et al. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum multicystatin and its structural comparison with other cystatins. The Plant Cell Online 21.3 (2009): 861-875.

Novy, R. G., et al. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity. American journal of potato research 89.2 (2012): 89-101.

Novy, R. G., et al. Teton russet: an early-maturing, dual-purpose potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin c content, low asparagine, and resistances to common scab and fusarium dry rot. American Journal of Potato Research (2013): 1-14.

Novy, R. G., Whitworth, J., Alvarez, J., Trumble, J. T., Butler, C. D., Buchman, J. L., & Munyaneza, J. E. (2010). Unique tri-species germplasm with multiple insect resistances and its use in breeding for resistance to resistance to psyllid/zc. 2010 zebra chip reporting session, 103.

Novy, Richard G., et al. Clearwater Russet: A dual-purpose potato cultivar with cold sweetening resistance, high protein content, and low incidence of external defects and sugar ends. American journal of potato research 87.5 (2010): 458-471.

Novy, Richard G., et al. Payette Russet: a Dual-Purpose Potato Cultivar with Cold Sweetening Resistance, Low Acrylamide Formation, and Resistance to Late Blight and Potato Virus Y. American Journal of Potato Research. (2017): 38-53

Pavek, M. J., and R. E. Thornton. Is your potato planter restricting your profit potential?

Pavek, M. J., and R. E. Thornton. Planting depth influences potato plant morphology and economic value. American journal of potato research 86.1 (2009): 56-67.

Pavek, Mark J., Zach J. Holden, and R. Rhett Spear. Defining Optimum Row Width for Different Potato Varieties. January 27th-30th.

Perla, V., Holm, D. G., & Jayanty, S. S. (2012). Selenium and sulfur content and activity of associated enzymes in selected potato germplasm. American journal of potato research, 89(2), 111-120.

Perla, V., Jayanty, S. S., Holm, D. G., & Davidson, R. D. (2014). Relationship between tuber storage proteins and tuber powdery scab resistance in potato. American Journal of Potato Research, 91(3), 233-245.

Ramesh, S. V., Raikhy, G., Brown, C. R., Whitworth, J. L., & Pappu, H. R. (2014). Complete genomic characterization of a potato mop-top virus isolate from the United States. Archives of virology, 159(12), 3427-3433.

Rosen, C. J., Kelling, K. A., Stark, J. C., & Porter, G. A. (2014). Optimizing phosphorus fertilizer management in potato production. American Journal of Potato Research, 91(2), 145-160.

Schmidt, N. P., O'Neal, M. E., Anderson, P. F., Lagos, D., Voegtlin, D., Bailey, W., ... & Whitworth, J. (2012). Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a summary of the suction trap network. Journal of economic entomology, 105(1), 259-271.

Sen, D., Van der Auwera, G. A., Rogers, L. M., Thomas, C. M., Brown, C. J., & Top, E. M. (2011). Broad-host-range plasmids from agricultural soils have IncP-1 backbones with diverse accessory genes. Applied and environmental microbiology, 77(22), 7975-7983.

Shock, C. C., Eldredge, E. P., & Saunders, M. D. Tuber bulking rate and processing quality of early potato selections.Contributors And Cooperators Malheur Experiment Station Special Report 2004 Research, 156.

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Shock, C. C., Eldredge, E. P., Pereira, A. B., & Saunders, L. D. Planting Configuration and Plant Population Effects on Drip-Irrigated Umatilla Russet potato Yield and Grade. Contributors And Cooperators Malheur Experiment Station Special Report 2004 Research, 162.

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