NCERA137: Soybean Diseases

(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)

Status: Active

NCERA137: Soybean Diseases

Duration: 10/01/2019 to 09/30/2024

Administrative Advisor(s):

NIFA Reps:

Non-Technical Summary

Statement of Issues and Justification

Mission of NCERA-137:

The NCERA 137 Soybean Disease Committee monitors the development of soybean diseases, works to coordinate and prioritize research, and directs science-based information to breeders and agricultural companies and agencies across the U.S. The committee has a system of rapid information exchange about current and emerging pathogen issues that helps mitigate yield losses and assists farmers and companies in cost savings. The coordinated, multistate research and information-sharing network assists soybean breeders, seed companies and fungicide manufacturers in developing improved germplasm lines, varieties and integrated pest management programs that ultimately enhance the profitability of soybean production while protecting the environment and sustainability of soybean production.

Statement of Issues and Justification:

Processed soybeans are the largest source of protein feed and the second largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The U.S. is the world's leading soybean producer and exporter, with a total of nearly 4.4 billion bushels harvested from almost 90 million acres in 2017. With new markets for green energy, and soybean oil replacing crude oil in industrial processes, there is a greater demand to improve yield and quality. Soybean yields have been increasing on a per acre basis over the past several years, with average yields of 52.0 and 49.1 bu/A reported for 2016 and 2017, respectively (NASS, USDA). However, the frequency and spread of soybean diseases has played a role in keeping an even greater yield potential from being realized.

Soybean production in the north central region has increased due to changes in management systems, improved genetics, and expanded soybean acreage. From 2010 through 2014, average economic losses to soybean diseases across the U.S. and Ontario, Canada were estimated to be more than $60 per acre annually (Allen et al., 2017). The total estimated yield loss during this time period was more than 2.1 billion bushels. There are numerous opportunities for plant pathologists to work together to reduce yield and economic losses caused by diseases through both improved cultivar resistance and best management practices. Best management practices include the emphasis of integrated pest management principles whereby fungicide applications are made only when needed.

One of the major strengths of NCERA-137 is the ability for its members to discuss and respond to new and reemerging diseases in the north central region. For example, soybean rust was discovered for the first time in the fall of 2004 near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Numerous members of this committee were at the forefront of the national response prior to the creation of the NCERA-208 Soybean Rust Committee. While soybean rust has not caused the feared catastrophic losses predicted by some, the disease has spread in a decidedly different pattern each year, leaving pathologists unable to predict what the long term impact of the disease may be. As a result, its introduction along with other factors has resulted in major increases in the use of fungicides, even in areas where rust does not occur. For example, according to data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), very little fungicide usage occurred on soybeans prior to 2006. In 2006, over 362,000 pounds of fungicides were applied to soybeans, with that number continuing to increase with over 1 million pounds applied in 2012 and nearly 2 million pounds applied in 2017 ( There are numerous questions regarding the efficacious use of foliar fungicides that still need to be addressed, including plant health claims. Additionally, breeders continue to expend a large amount of their time in efforts at finding sources of resistance to the rust fungus and other pathogens of soybean.

The recent increase in soybean market price has encouraged farmers to use fungicides even in situations where there may not be a clear benefit. Increased fungicides use is of concern for several reasons, including the increased risk for development of fungicide resistance in soybean pathogens. In 2010, the loss of disease control and resistance to QoI fungicides was documented in Cercospora sojina, the causal agent of frogeye leaf spot (Zhang and Bradley, 2012). Isolates of Cercospora kikuchii, which causes Cercospora leaf blight, were also found to exhibit resistance to certain fungicides (Price et al., 2015). Monitoring for fungicide resistance along with education efforts will be necessary to minimize or prevent the loss of disease control for these and other soybean diseases.

The root and stem diseases Sclerotinia stem rot (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and sudden death syndrome (Fusarium virguliforme) have increased due to climatic trends (wetter field conditions) and altered management practices (no-till and reduced till). Soybean sudden death syndrome continues to be confirmed in new states and counties, and although variable from year to year it appears to be increasing in severity and incidence within fields across the region. Pathologists, breeders and industry continue to actively look for methods to manage and reduce the severity of sudden death syndrome. NCERA-137 collectively serves as a forum to address these concerns and outline research priorities.

Soybean vein necrosis is a new viral disease initially found in 2008 in only a few states. By 2012, it was widespread across many states with a high incidence of fields affected. As a result, NCERA-137 committee invited virologists to the NCERA-137 meeting to exchange information and discuss the situation. This enabled committee members to provide the most up to date and accurate information regarding this emerging disease to our stakeholders.

In spite of the fact that a great deal of emphasis has been put forth both in research and Extension efforts to manage soybean cyst nematode (SCN), caused by Heterodera glycines, there is increasing evidence that some populations of the nematode are now able to overcome the major source of resistance used in disease-resistant soybean varieties. This poses many questions on long term management of SCN, as well as the continued need for extension and outreach efforts to better educate stakeholders on the importance of SCN resistance and field sampling.

Research continues to be needed on the development of molecular techniques to detect and diagnose pathogens that have spread from the southern U.S. to northern locations. For example, the successful development of PCR techniques to confirm the existence of symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of the brown stem rot pathogen, Cadophora gregata, has provided new evidence that this pathogen is much more widespread than previously thought. Many new detection and diagnostic tools are being developed and evaluated by members of the NCERA-137 group.  Regular contact and exchange of information allows us to work cooperatively to advance these methods.

Charcoal rot (caused by Macrophomina phaseolina) and frogeye leaf spot, diseases that were historically southern problems, have continued to spread and have had negative production impacts in the north central region. Additionally, over the past several years, there are many new researchers and Extension specialists who have joined the ranks of the soybean disease research community. NCERA-137 has had a 34-year history of success, and the benefits of new faculty participating in NCERA-137 are critical for effectively fostering new collaborations and communication of results for these new researchers.

Since its inception in 1984, the annual meetings of NCERA-137 have had near perfect attendance from member states. In addition, we are an international committee with participation including Ontario, Canada. Participants place a high value on the interpersonal exchanges and it shows in the attendance rate and lively and productive discussions. The annual meeting is routinely aligned with meetings of other groups interested in the health and productivity of soybean. For example, it is held occasionally in conjunction with the Soybean Breeders Workshop and with the Southern Soybean Disease Workers Meeting. In 2019, we plan to meet with the Southern Soybean Disease Workers.

Collaborations within NCERA-137 are the basis for numerous regional research projects and multistate grant proposals funded by groups such as the United Soybean Board (USB), North Central IPM Center, the North Central Soybean Research Program (NCSRP) and USDA-AFRI. In recent years, these coordinated regional projects have included regional research on Sclerotinia stem rot, Phytophthora root rot, charcoal rot, sudden death syndrome, SCN, and soybean seedling diseases.

A regional disease loss survey conducted by NCERA-137 researchers and Extension specialists provides annual yield loss estimates for the north central region. A joint effort of the USB and NCERA-137 membership, this survey is a comprehensive assessment of soybean yield losses to plant diseases. Information from this survey is used to determine the relative importance of soybean diseases in order to prioritize research and guide breeding efforts.

NCERA-137 members maintain a close association with state and regional soybean commodity organizations. NCERA-137 members are extensively involved in technology transfer via traditional and electronic media. In addition to traditional state Extension publications, multi-state regional efforts are also ongoing. The Crop Protection Network (CPN) ( is a collaborative effort between north central region soybean researchers and is accessible to farmers, consultants, and researchers. Its website is a centralized source of soybean disease research and disease management information. Links to similar systems in each state extend the reach and content of the CPN.

NCERA-137 members have played an important role in the development of the iPIPE (Integrated Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education) that allows soybean farmers, Extension educators and soybean industry personnel to follow the spread of soybean rust and other diseases on a real-time basis. This reporting and communication system has allowed for timely application of fungicides and the judicious use of fungicides where soybean rust is not a threat.

NCERA-137 membership, as stakeholders in the activity of the committee, has influenced research directions on soybean diseases important in the north central region to the benefit of soybean producers, the ultimate customer for their efforts. We have close ties with Industry and the North Central Soybean Research Board and the United Soybean Board.

The continued success of NCERA-137 is contingent on our ability to actively train the next generation of researchers, teachers and Extension workers. Even though funding for graduate students and postdoctoral associates has become more difficult to obtain, we need to continue to seek new opportunities for graduate students and postdoctoral associates to study soybean diseases and to actively participate in activities associated with NCERA-137.


  1. Foster collaborative research and information exchange on new and emerging soybean diseases among soybean pathology scientists as well as soybean breeders and entomologists.
  2. Coordinate soybean yield loss estimates caused by diseases across the soybean producing region.
  3. Compare data from studies of the ecology, epidemiology and management of soybean diseases.
  4. Improve knowledge transfer about soybean diseases and their management to researchers, Extension personnel, farmers and agribusinesses.
  5. Continue to monitor and share information for new or reemerging pathogens of soybean in the North Central Region and develop appropriate responses to their emergence.

Procedures and Activities

The strength of NCERA-137 has been:

  1. Its ability to successfully bring together colleagues from different institutions to plan and coordinate research on important soybean diseases that affect all or portions of the north central region.

    1. Recently completed work on soybean checkoff funded projects including Phytophthora root and stem rot and Sclerotinia stem rot.

    2. On-going collaborative funded projects including research on charcoal rot, frogeye leaf spot, sudden death syndrome and seedling diseases.

  2. An NCERA-137 white paper. In 2007, NCERA-137 members completed a white paper identifying research gaps on important soybean diseases ( This paper is serving as a road map in developing new grant proposals for region wide research projects.

  3. Joint meetings. In order to continue coordination and development of collaborative projects, the NCERA-137 members meet annually to plan, discuss, evaluate and report on new and ongoing research projects and educational initiatives.

The annual meetings also serve as a venue to discuss critical emerging issues occurring in the region. One such issue is the increased use of foliar fungicides on soybean within the region. New marketing tactics by the chemical companies encourage producers to use fungicides for reasons other than disease control (i.e. plant health). NCERA-137 members have pooled their soybean fungicide trial data, and a combined meta-analysis is being conducted to determine the benefits, if any, of the use of foliar fungicides on soybeans in the absence of disease. As an outcome of these discussions, a fungicide efficacy table has been developed for soybean diseases (similar to that produced by the NCERA-184 Wheat Disease Committee).

Expected Outcomes and Impacts

  • Development and coordination of new efforts to combat emerging diseases and continuing collaborative research projects (seedling diseases, soybean vein necrosis virus, charcoal rot, frogeye leaf spot and QoI resistance, white mold, and sudden death syndrome) among NCERA-137 members and associated scientists that address stakeholder needs. Comments:
  • Develop mechanisms to measure the effect (increased productivity) and impact (economic benefit) of new management practices on soybean diseases.
  • Release of soybean germplasm lines and cultivars with improved resistance to diseases of importance in the north central region, .e.g. Rps8 gene for Phytophthora resistance and a charcoal rot tolerant line.
  • 4. Publication of collaborative research results and management recommendations in various formats including electronic media for use by producers, Extension agents, consultants and interested industry personnel (see Literature Published section for examples from the previous five years).
  • Regular interaction among NCERA-137 members to exchange ideas and/or information/data on current pathogens/diseases.
  • 6. Evaluation and standardization of methods and techniques leading to the development of common protocols for pathology work (e.g. work in progress to develop improved screening protocols for charcoal rot).
  • Identification of critical/key research and education issues.
  • 8. Develop new soybean disease webcasts to be delivered through the Plant Management Networks Focus on Soybean section (
  • 9. Develop timely information on management of soybean diseases through the Crop Protection Network ( Currently, 20 articles on soybean diseases have been posted on the website with collaborative involvement from multiple states and members of this committee.
  • 10. Develop a fungicide efficacy chart for use by soybean producers and the soybean industry in the North Central region. Several version of this has been produced and available through various state delivery systems by members of this committee.
  • 11. Report soybean disease monitoring activities on a state-by-state basis through the IPM PIPE (, state specific Extension newsletters, and provide state specific management guidelines.
  • 12. Conduct meta-analysis on data collected from multi-state fungicide trials conducted on soybean in the North Central region and deliver the results of the analysis through a peer-reviewed journal article and in a simplified version via the Plant Health Initiative.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Educational Plan

Today's farmers are becoming more sophisticated in the ways in which they obtain research and crop management information. Most use the internet as a source of information, podcasts and videocasts (e.g. YouTube) and social media (e.g. Facebook and Twitter). Because of this, information from NCERA-137 projects needs to be prepared for delivery in multiple formats. There are several examples of how the committee is adapting educational information for the modern soybean farmer.

Working with the Plant Management Network (, members of NCERA-137 have developed a series of webcasts in the Focus on Soybean section. Over 10 soybean disease-related webcasts are available currently, and more are in development. NCERA-137 members will continue to update webcasts as needed and develop new webcasts as new issues arise.

The Plant Health Initiative website ( continues to be an outlet for NCERA-137 members to report information on soybean diseases and disease detection and management. Current modules include Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Brown Stem Rot, Charcoal Rot, Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot, Seedling Diseases, Soybean Cyst Nematode, Soybean Mosaic Virus, Soybean Rust, Stem Canker, Sudden Death Syndrome, Viruses, and White Mold. The site also provides links to state specific information where available. Soybean disease information on this site will continue to be updated as new information becomes available.

NCERA-137 members participating in soybean rust monitoring through sentinel plots report results of the monitoring effort through the IPM PIPE website ( Although this site was originally focused on soybean rust, diseases other than soybean rust are monitored and reported through this site.  Information regarding current disease levels in specific states or regions and disease management recommendations are provided. Monitoring of other soybean diseases will continue to be reported in this manner as long as IPM PIPE funding continues.

Results of collaborative research projects will be reported at scientific meetings and be published in peer reviewed journals. Communication of these findings will also be made available to producers, commercial field managers and agriculture industry personnel through Plant Disease Management Reports, fact sheets, web site materials, field days, and educational offerings in traditional Extension meeting formats. Surveys of the impact of information delivered will occur, depending on funding availability.


Officers are to include a chair and secretary who is the chair-elect. Officers will be elected for a one year term. Administrative guidance will be provided by an assigned Administrative Advisor and a CSREES Representative.

Literature Cited

Members of NCERA-137 (Formerly NCERA-212) regularly publish collaborative efforts in peer reviewed journals, disease management reports, Extension bulletins and on web sites. The following list highlights those citations that demonstrate collaborative efforts.

Book and Book Chapters

Mueller, D. K. Wise, A Sisson, D. Smith, E. Sikora C. Bradley and A. Robinson.  A Farmer’s Guide to Soybean Diseases.  St. Paul: APS Press

Hartman, G. L., E. J. Sikora and J. C. Rupe.  2015.  Rust.  In: Compendium of Soybean Diseases and Pests (5th Edition)

Refereed journal articles

Allen, T., B. Bluhm, K. Conner, V. Doyle, T. Price, E. Sikora, R. Singh, T. Spurlock, M. Tomaso-Peterson and T. Wilkerson.  2017.  First Description of the Causal Agent of Taproot Decline of Soybean, an Emerging Disease in the Southern United States.  Plant Health Progress 18: 35-40.


Allen, T.W., Bradley, C.A., Sisson, A.J., Byamukama, E., Chilvers, M.I., Coker, C.M., Collins, A.A., Damicone, J.P., Dorrance, A.E., Dufault, N.S., Esker, P.D., Faske, T.R., Giesler, L.J., Grybauskas, A.P., Hershman, D.E., Hollier, C.A., Isakeit, T., Jardine, D.J., Kemerait, R.C., Kleczewski, N.M., Koenning, S.R., Kurle, J.E., Malvick, D.K., Markell, S.G., Mehl, H.L., Mueller, D.S., Mueller, J.D., Mulrooney, R.P., Nelson, B.D., Newman, M.A., Osborne, L., Overstreet, C., Padgett, G.B., Phipps, P.M., Price, P.P., Sikora, E.J., Smith, D.L., Spurlock, T.N., Tande, C.A., Tenuta, A.U., Wise, K.A., Wrather, J.A., and Young-Kelly, H. 2017. Soybean yield loss estimates due to diseases in the United States and Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2014. Plant Health Progress. 18:19-27.

Anderson, N.R., Irizarry, M.D., Bloomingdale, C.A., Smith, D.L., Bradley, C.A., Deland, D.P., Kleczewski, N.M., Sikora, E.J., Wise, K.A., and Mueller, D.S. 2017. Effects of Soybean vein necrosis virus on yield and seed quality of soybean. Canadian Journal Plant Pathology. 39:334-341

Bissonnette, K. M., C. C. Marett, M. P. Mullaney, G. D. Gebhart, P. Kyveryga, T. A. Mueller, and G. L. Tylka. 2018. Effects of Clariva Complete Beans seed treatment on Heterodera glycines reproduction and soybean yield in Iowa. Plant Health Progress. 19:1-8

Bloomingdale, C., Irrizarry, M.D., Groves, R.L., Mueller, D.S., and Smith, D.L. 2017. Seasonal population dynamics of thrips (Thysanoptera) in Wisconsin and Iowa soybean fields. Journal of Economic Entomology.doi:10.1093/jee/tow242.

Bluck, G.M., Lindsey, L.E., Dorrance, A.E., Metzger, J.D. 2015. Soybean yield response to Rhizobia inoculant, gypsum, manganese fertilizer, insecticide, and fungicide. Agron. J. 107: 1757-1765.

Christopher N. Boyer, S. Aaron Smith, Xavier L. Harmon, Dayton M. Lambert, Jamie Jordan, Melvin Newman, Heather Y. Kelly. 2017. Value of Damage Control with Foliar Fungicide in Soybean Production in Tennessee. Agronomy Journal 109:4 DOI: 10.2134/agronj2016.12.0714

Fall, M.L., Boyse, J.F., Wang, D., Wilbur, J.F., Smith, D.L., Chilvers, M.I. Submitted Dec 23, 2016, Accepted Dec 3, 2017. Case study of an epidemiological approach dissecting historical soybean Sclerotinia stem rot observations and identifying environmental predictors of epidemics and yield loss. Phytopathology

Freed, G.M., Floyd, C.M., and Malvick, D.K. 2017. Effects of pathogen population levels and crop-derived nutrients on development of soybean sudden death syndrome and growth of Fusarium virguliforme. Plant Disease 101:434-441.

Gaspar, A.P., Mueller, D.S., Wise, K.A., Chilvers, M.I., Tenuta, A.U., and Conley, S.P. 2017. Response of broad spectrum and target specific seed treatments and seeding rate on soybean seed yield, profitability, and economic risk. Crop Science. 56:1-12.

Kandel Y.R., Haudenshield, J.S., Srour A.Y., Fakhoury, A.M., Chilvers M.I., Wang J., Santos, P., Hartman G.L., Malvick, D.K., Floyd, C.M., Mueller, D.S. and Leandro, L.F.S. 2015. Multi-lab comparison of six quantitative PCR assays for detection and quantification of Fusarium virguliforme from soybean roots and soil. Phytopathology. 105:1601-1611.

Kandel, Y., Bradley, C.A., Wise, K.A., Chilvers, M., Tenuta, A., Davis, V.M., Esker, P.E., Smith, D.L., Licht, M.A., and Mueller, D.S. 2015. Effect of glyphosate application on sudden death syndrome of soybean under different field conditions. Plant Disease. 99:347-354.

Kandel Y. R., Bradley, C. A., Wise, K. A., Chilvers, M. I., Tenuta, A. U., Davis, V. M., Esker, P. D., Smith D. L., Licht M. A. and Mueller, D. S. 2015. Effect of glyphosate application on sudden death syndrome of glyphosate-resistant soybean under different field conditions. Plant Dis. 99:347-354.

Kandel, Y.R., Wise, K.A., Bradley, C.A., Chilvers, M.I., Byrne, A.M., Tenuta, A.U., Faghihi, J., Wiggs, S., and Mueller, D.S. 2017. Effect of soybean cyst nematode resistance source and seed treatment on population densities of Heterodera glycines, sudden death syndrome, and yield of soybean. Plant Disease. 101:2137-2143.

Kelly, H. M., Dufault, N.S., Walker, D. R., Isard, S. A., Schneider, R. W., Giesler, L. J., Wright, D. W., Marois, J. J., and Hartman, G. L. 2015. From select agent to an established pathogen: the response to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Soybean Rust) in North America. Phytopathology 105:905-916.

Mathew, F., M., Castelbury, L., A., Jordahl, J. G., Taylor, C., A., Meyer, S., M., Lamppa, R. S., Pasche, J., A., and Markell, S., G.  2015. Identification of Diaporthe longicolla on dry edible peas, dry edible beans and soybeans in North Dakota.  Plant Health Progress doi: 10.1094/PHP-RV-14-0045.

Mengistu, A., Kelly, H. M., Arelli, P. R., and Bellaloui, N. 2015. Effects of tillage, cultivar and fungicide on Phomopsis longicolla and Cercospora kukuchii in soybean. Crop Protection 72:175-181

McCaghey, M. and Willbur, J., Ranjan, A., Grau, C., Chapman, S., Diers, B., Groves, C., Kabbage, M., and Smith, D.L. 2017. Development and evaluation of Glycine max germplasm lines with quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Frontiers in Plant Science. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2017.01495.

McCarville, M.C., Marett, C.C., Mullaney, M.P., Gebhart, G.D., and Tylka, G.L. 2017. Increase in soybean cyst nematode virulence and reproduction on resistant soybean varieties in Iowa from 2001 to 2015 and its effects on soybean yields. Plant Health Progress 18:146-155.

Morriss, S.C., Studham, M.E., Tylka, G.L., and MacIntosh, G.C. 2017. Validation of a hairy roots system to study soybean-soybean aphid interactions. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174914.

Mourtzinis, S., D. Marburger, J. Gaska, T. Diallo, J.G. Lauer, and S.P. Conley. 2017. Corn and Soybean Yield Response to Tillage, Rotation, and Nematicide Seed Treatment. Crop Sci. doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0792

Olson, T.R., Gebreil, A., Micijevic, A., Bradley, C.A., Wise, K.A., Mueller, D.S., Chilvers, M.I., and Mathew, F.M.* 2015. Association of Diaporthe longicolla with black zone lines on mature soybean (Glycine max L.) plants. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-RS-15-0020.

Pedrozo, R., and Little, C.R. 2017. Fusarium verticillioides inoculum potential influences soybean seed quality. European Journal of Plant Pathology 148: 749-754.

Price, P., Purvis, M. A., Cai, G., Padgett, G. B., Robertson, C. L., Schneider, R. W., and Albu, S.  2015.  Fungicide resistance in Cercospora kikuchii, a soybean pathogen.  Plant Dis.  99:1596-1603.

Radmer, L., Anderson, G., Malvick, D.K., Rendahl, A., Mallik, A. and Kurle, J.E. 2017. Pythium and Phytopythium spp. isolated from Minnesota soybean fields, their relative aggressiveness to soybean and corn, and their sensitivity to seed treatment fungicides. Plant Disease 101:62-72.

Ranjan, A., Jayaraman, D., Grau, C., Hill, J., Whitham, S., Ané, J., Smith, D., Kabbage, M. 2017. The pathogenic development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean requires specific host NADPH oxidases. Molecular Plant Pathology DOI:10.1111/mpp.12555.

Rojas, J.A., Jacons, J., Napieralski, S., Karaj, B., Bradley, C.A., Chase, T., Esker, P.D., Gielser, L., Jardine, D., Malvick, D., Markell, S., Nelson, B., Robertson, A.E., Rupe, J., Smith, D., Sweets, L., Tenuta, A., Wise, K., and Chilvers, M. 2017. Survey of oomycete species associated with soybean seedlings in the U.S. – Part II: Diversity and ecology. Phytopathology 107: 293-304

Rojas, J.A., Miles, T., Coffey, M., Martin, F.N., Chilvers, M.I. 2017. Development and application of qPCR and RPA genus and species-specific detection of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora sansomeana root rot pathogens. Plant Disease 101:1171-1181

Romero Luna, M.P., Mueller, D.S., Mengistu, A., Singh, A.K., Hartman, G.L., and Wise, K.A. 2017. Advancing our understanding of charcoal rot in soybeans. Journal Integrated Pest Management. 2017; 8 (1): 1-8. doi: 10.1093/jipm/pmw020.

Sandesh Kumar Shrestha, Alicia Cochran, Alemu Mengistu, Kurt Lamour, Arturo Castro-Rocha, Heather Young-Kelly. 2017. Genetic diversity, QoI fungicide resistance, and mating type distribution of Cercospora sojina—Implications for the disease dynamics of frogeye leaf spot on soybean. PLOS ONE 12:5 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177220

Sikora, E., J. Murphy and K. Conner.   2017.  Monitoring Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus incidence at different soybean growth stages in Alabama.  Plant Health Progress 18: 166.

Stewart, S., Robertson, A.E. Wickramasinghe, D, Michel, A. and Dorrance A.E.  2016.  Population structure among and within Iowa, Missouri, Ohio and South Dakota populations of Phytophthora sojae.  Plant Dis. 100: 367-379

Vosberg, S.K., Marburger, D.A., Smith, D.L., and Conley, S.P. 2017. Planting date and fluopyram seed treatment effect on soybean sudden death syndrome and seed yield. Agronomy Journal. DOI:10.2134/agronj2017.04.0232.

Wang, J., Bradley, C.A., Stenzel, O., Pedersen, D.K., Reuter-Carlson, U., Chilvers, M.I. 2017. Baseline sensitivity of Fusarium virguliforme to fluopyram fungicide. Plant Disease 101:576-582.

Yan, G. P.,  Plaisance, A.,  I. Chowdhury, R. Baidoo, A. Upadhaya, J. Pasche, S.Markell, B. Nelson, and S. Chen.. 2017. First Report of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines infecting dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a commercial field in Minnesota.  Plant Disease  101: 391.

Zhang, J, Singh, Ar., Mueller, D. and Singh, As. 2015. Genome-wide association and epistasis studies unravel the genetic architecture of sudden death syndrome resistance in soybean. The Plant Journal. 84: 1124–1136. doi:10.1111/tpj.13069

Zhang, G., and C.A. Bradley. 2017. Comparison of quinone outside inhibitor fungicide-resistantand –sensitive isolates of Cercospora sojina. Crop Protection 94:59-63.


Regional Extension Publications (CPN):

Damon Smith; Adam Sisson, Albert Tenuta, Anne Dorrance, Carl Bradley, Daren Mueller, Dean Malvick, Doug Jardine, Emmanuel Byamukama, Kiersten Wise, Laura Sweets, Loren Giesler, Marty Chilvers, Sam Markell, Teresa Hughes, Terry Niblack. 2015. Soybean Disease Management: Charcoal Rot, Crop Protection Network 1004

Tenuta, A., Bradley, C., Chilvers, M., Giesler, L., Mathew, F., Mueller D., Sisson, A., Smith, D., Wise, K. 2015. Scouting for Common Soybean Diseases. CPN-1001.

Wise, K., Bradley, C., Chilvers, M., Giesler, L., Mathew, F., Mueller, D., Sisson, A., Smith, D., Tenuta, A. 2015. Scouting for Soybean Stem Diseases. CPN-1002.

Willbur, J.F., Lucas, H., Kabbage, M., and Smith, D.L. 2015. Development of a predictive model for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecial development to control white mold in soybean fields. Phytopathology 105:S4.148.

Bloomingdale, C., Bradley, C., Chilvers, M., Giesler, L., Groves, R., Mueller, D., Smith, D., Tenuta, A., Wise, K. 2013 (Revised 2015). Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus. CPN-1003.

Smith, D., Chilvers, M., Dorrance, A., Hughes, T., Mueller, D., Niblack, T., Wise, K. 2015. Charcoal Rot. CPN-1004.

Mueller, D., Bradley, C., Chilvers, M., Esker, P., Malvick, D., Peltier, A., Sisson, A., Wise, K. 2015. White Mold. CPN-1005.

Wise, K., Bradley, C.A., Chilvers, M., Giesler, L. Mathew, F., Mueller, D., Smith, D., Tenuta, A. 2015. Stem Canker. CPN-1006.

Mueller, D., Bradley, C., Chilvers, M., Giesler, L., Mathew, F., Smith, D., Tenuta, A., and Wise, K. 2015. Pod and stem blight and Phomopsis seed decay. CPN-1007.

Wise, K., Bradley, C., Giesler, L. Johnson, B., Legleiter, T., Licht, M., Mueller, D., Noveroske, A. Sisson, A., Tenuta, A., Young-Kelly, H. 2015. Soybean Seedling Diseases CPN-1008.

Wise, K., Bradley, C., Chilvers, M. Giesler, L. Johnson, B., Legleiter, T., Licht, M., Mueller, D., Noveroske, A. Sisson, A., Tenuta, A., Young-Kelly, H. 2015. Scouting for Soybean Seedling Diseases. CPN-1009.

Mueller, D., Chilvers, M., Giesler, L., Sisson, A., Tenuta, A., Wise, K. 2015. Scouting for White Mold in Soybean. CPN-1010.

Wise, K., and members of the NCERA-137 Soybean Disease Committee. 2014, revised 2015. Fungicide Efficacy for the Control of Soybean Seedling Diseases BP-163-W

Wise, K. and members of the NCERA-137 Soybean Disease Committee. 2013 2014, revised 2015. Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Foliar Soybean Diseases. BP-162-W


PDMR and Experiment station reports:

 Allen, T. W., Solomon, W. L., and Burgess, B. A. 2017. Field evaluation of maturity group IV early Xtend soybean cultivars to Cercospora leaf blight, frogeye leaf spot, Septoria brown spot, target spot, and green stem at Stoneville, MS (clay soil, irrigated), 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC134.

Allen, T. W., Solomon, W. L., and Burgess, B. A. 2017. Field evaluation of maturity group IV late RoundUp Ready soybean cultivars to Cercospora leaf blight at Stoneville, MS (clay soil, irrigated), 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC135.

Adee, E., Diaz, D.R., and Little, C.R. 2017. Soybean sudden death syndrome influenced by macronutrient fertility on irrigated soybean in a corn/soybean rotation. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Vol. 3 (

Brochard, N. R., Allen, T. W., Irby, J. T., and Scholtes, A. 2017. Evaluation of the automatic fungicide timing to manage foliar disease and protect yield in eastern Mississippi trial 1, 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC044.

Brochard, N. R., Allen, T. W., Irby, J. T., and Scholtes, A. 2017. Evaluation of the automatic fungicide timing to manage foliar disease and protect yield in eastern Mississippi trial 2, 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC045.

Byrne, A.M., Chilvers, M.I. 2017. Efficacy of foliar fungicides for white mold management of soybean in 2016a. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC030

Byrne, A.M., Chilvers, M.I. 2017. Efficacy of foliar fungicides for white mold management of soybean in 2016b. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC029

Butler, S. A. and Kelly, H. M. 2015. Field evaluation of the influence of droplet size and spray angle on fungicide efficacy in soybean, 2014. Plant Disease Management Report. Volume 9, Field Crops Section.

Butler, S. A. and Kelly, H. M. 2015. Field evaluation of the influence of spray volume and droplet size on fungicide efficacy in soybean, 2014. Plant Disease Management Report. Volume 9, Field Crops Section.

Cochran, A. M. and Kelly, H. M. 2015. Field evaluation of fungicide efficacy on frogeye leaf spot using single and combination FRAC code fungicides, 2014. Plant Disease Management Report. Volume 9, Field Crops Section.

Emerson, M., Faske, T. R., and Hurd, K. 2017. Evaluation of Syngenta’s foliar fungicide protocol for management of frogeye leaf spot in Arkansas, 2016. PDMR 11:FC078.

Emerson, M., Faske, T. R., and Hurd, K.  2017. Evaluation of foliar fungicides for management of frogeye leaf spot of soybean in Arkansas, 2016. PDMR 11:FC081.

Hurd, K., Faske, T. R. and Emerson, M. 2017.  Efficacy of ILeVO to suppress root-knot nematode on soybean in Arkansas, 2016.  PDMR 11:N034.

Jardine, D.J., E. Adee, and G. Sassenrath. 2015. Effects of seed protection chemicals on stand and yield of soybeans in Kansas, 2014. Plant Dis. Mgmt. Reports. 9:ST001

Jordan, W. J. and Kelly, H. M. 2015. Field evaluation of maturity group V soybean cultivars to frogeye leaf spot and fungicide in Tennessee, 2014. Plant Disease Management Report. Volume 9, Field Crops Section.

Mueller, B., Smith, D.L., Willbur, J., and Chapman, S. 2017. Evaluation of foliar fungicide for control of foliar diseases on soybean in Wisconsin, 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:CF050.

Mueller, B., Smith, D.L., Willbur, J., and Chapman, S. 2017. Evaluation of foliar fungicide treatments for control of Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean in Hancock, Wisconsin, 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:CF049.

Price, P., M. A. Purvis, and H. Pruitt.  2017.  Effect of variety on charcoal rot of soybean, 2016.  11:FC033.

Price, P., M. A. Purvis, and H. Pruitt.  2017.  Effect of variety on charcoal rot of soybean, 2016.  11:FC034.

Sikora, E. J., M. A. Delaney and D. P. Delaney.  2015.  Evaluation of foliar application of FORTRIX for control of soybean rust, 2013.  Plant Disease Management Reports 9:STF.

Sikora, E. J., M. A. Delaney and D. P. Delaney.  2015.  Evaluation of foliar applications of Topguard SC for control of soybean rust, 2013.  Plant Disease Management Reports 9:STF.

Solomon, W. L., Allen, T. W., and Burgess, B. A. 2017. Disease reaction of Maturity Group V LibertyLink soybean cultivars to stem canker in western MS, 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC077.

Solomon, W. L., Allen, T. W., and Burgess, B. A. 2017. Disease reaction of maturity group IV Xtend soybean cultivars to stem canker in western MS, 2016. Plant Disease Management Reports 11:FC006.

Zhou, T., Byrd-Masters, L., and Mehl, H. L. 2016. Evaluation of foliar fungicide for control of common foliar diseases in soybean, 2015. Plant Disease Management Reports 10:FC136.

Zhou, T., Byrd-Masters, L., and Mehl, H. L. 2016. Evaluation of application timings of foliar fungicide for control of common fungal diseases in soybean, 2015. Plant Disease Management Reports 10:FC137.


Collaborative Websites:

Crop protection network contains several regional extension fact sheets from members of the NCERA-137 on various disease of soybean. Several examples of publications are provided above in the “Regional Extension Publication” section.

The Plant Health Initiative webpage at: contains contributions from NCERA-137 members working on Phialophora (Cadophora ) gregata, Phytophthora sojae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines (F. verguliforme), Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Cercospora sojina, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Soybean Mosaic Virus and Heterodera glycines.

PIPE: Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education is a national warning system designed to help soybean farmers protect their crop from the devastating disease Asian Soybean Rust (ASR). Several NCERA 137 members oversee state sentinel plot systems and provide weekly commentary on the status of ASR and other soybean diseases in their states.

Plant Management Network ( This site contains the peer reviewed journal Plant Health Progress, Plant Disease Management Reports and Focus on Soybeans


Land Grant Participating States/Institutions


Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

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