SAES-422 Multistate Research Activity Accomplishments Report

Status: Approved

Basic Information


H. Toro (AL), R. Gallardo (CA), Mazhar Khan, M. Garcia (GA), C. Keeler (DE), El-Gazzar (IA), K. Jarosinski (IL), T.L. Lin (IN), M.Ghanem (MD), D. Reynolds (NE), A. Dhondt (NY), R. Gireesh" (OH), and M. Pantin-Jackwood (SEPRL).

Summary of 2021 meeting minutes


-Meeting started at 9:03 EST (6:03am PST).

-We discussed the 2020 meeting minutes and talked about incorporating more members. We discussed the situation with the representation from Minnesota where its former representative went to work to industry and left the space vacant. Our administrative advisor (Dr. Velleman) will contact the Dean of Research at that institution to invite potential new representatives. Meeting minutes were approved after amending the notes on the issue about Minnesota representation.

-Dr. Velleman addressed the attendees, she talked about the importance of the collaborative efforts within the group and how the NCII80 program is highly regarded. She also talked about a new reporting software that NIFA will deploy by 2024.

- Dr. Velleman also reminded the group about the impact writing workshop that USDA can provide to the group and how beneficial this workshop will be. We delayed our participation in the workshop to next year.  

-Dr. Siewert addressed the attendees he talked about his role and specifics about NIFA funding. He shared a summary. He encouraged direct contact with him and encourage the group to apply as 2022 funding cycle was positive.

- Station reports started with the AL station report at 9:43am EST (6:43 PST).

- Discussion and brainstorming on ILT, IBV, MG, and E. Coli, immune reposes for respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens happened between the participants and stimulated some potential future collaborations.

- Station reports finished by 3:15pm EST (12:15 PST).

- The location for the NC1180 2022 meeting was discussed. A possibility was to start a rotation through the group members Universities. One possibility was to have the meeting before or after the Avian Immunology Research Group (AIRG) meeting which will be held at the University of Delaware in October of 2022. The AIRG meeting will be organized by Dr. Calvin Keeler a member of the NC1180 group. The group was encouraged by the idea to hold the meeting at the University of Delaware but future conversations with Dr. Keeler early this year are still necessary before we commit to do it.

- Dr. Brian Jordan was appointed as secretary for the group from 2022 to 2032.

- The Meeting was adjourned at 3:54pm EST (12:45 PST).                    


OBJECTIVE 1 - Investigate the ecology of poultry respiratory diseases and their role in poultry flocks.


Epidemiology. Poultry disease mapping efforts have been performed in a collaboration between IA and OH. The idea is to use this mapping strategy to reduce respiratory disease incidence through an on-line poultry flock mapping platform. Some reluctancy from producers has been sensed due to data sharing.


Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). In collaboration with the CA station, AL investigated the variability of the Ark strains isolated up to 2019. Differences in the isolated viruses were shown when compared and attributed to their distinct vaccination programs. An intense surveillance and interpretation of obtained strains in respect to vaccination and prevalent viruses has been developed in GA and CA. While GA has been using RT-qPCR for their screening, CA has used RT-PCR and sequencing. So far in GA the predominant strains belong to vaccine strains, while in CA local variant IBV 3099 is predominant. The variant DMV 1639 had an increased detection in late winter and spring while a considerable number of samples were positive for the generic RT-PCR without being able to type them. In California a decrease homology to IBV 3099 has been detected in the predominant isolates in 2020-2021, this indicates the presence of a new variant. These results show the importance of surveillance for variant detection and emphasize differences in the IBV epidemiology in the U.S East and West Coast. In DE the situation is similar than in GA, mainly vaccine strains have been detected. Very little Ark type viruses have been detected since vaccination programs have been re-adjusted to eliminate Ark vaccination.          

In addition, California reported on the characterization of IBV strains causing False Layer Syndrome and Male reproductive impairments. 


Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Two PI’s from the project, based in CA have been collaborating in understanding the epidemiology of NDV in East and West Africa. Other than contributing to NDV knowledge this project helps in the preparedness against NDV in the U.S.  SEPRL conducted surveillance in Kenya and found virulent NDV to be endemic in live bird markets.


Avian Influenza.  CT, DE, reported on their surveillance efforts on AI in backyard, auction, wild and commercial birds. SEPRL in collaboration with PI’s from CT, described their work on characterization of AI strains from Dominican Republic plus detection and characterization of IA strains in the U.S. An interesting report from SEPRL found that AI can be found for up to 7 months in wetlands in the northern part of the U.S.  SEPRL found emergent H5 avian influenza variants in Bangladesh.


Infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Diagnostic numbers were shared by DE, emphasis was given in combined detection of respiratory pathogens.


Mycoplasma. A collaboration between NY and Conn has provided insights on the role of wild birds (house finches) as a reservoir for MG to commercial poultry.


Bacterial pathogens. IA reported on atypical infectious coryza presentations and a potentially different Avibacterium paragallinarum lacking Hmtp210 gene. The same group has been working on an MLST typing strategy for Pasteurella Multocida. Finally, the group is researching the role of ORT in respiratory problems in Turkeys, while ORT is known as a primary pathogen, latest isolates are incapable of inducing disease upon challenge. MD and IA have been collaborating in genotyping strategies for mycoplasmas MG and MS using MLST.  


IMPACT OBJECTIVE #1: Understanding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases in the US, through surveillance, mapping, genetic characterization strategies has been crucial to establish successful prevention and control strategies including vaccination, management, and biosecurity.  



OBJECTIVE 2- Develop new and improved diagnostic tools for poultry respiratory diseases.


Bacteriology. A multiplex typing strategy has been elaborated by GA to detect and type mycoplasma types. This strategy uses third generation sequencing as platform and has been successful in their trials. A consortium of laboratories across the globe has been established with the lead of CA to find solution to the problem of typing infectious coryza isolates. Laboratories from the U.S., Netherlands, Indonesia, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, etc. have provided either isolates or sequences that are being used to set up a genotyping methodology in agreement with serotyping which has been the gold standard for several years. IA has worked on diagnostic tests using Taqman PCR to detect Bordetella avium and ORT. MD in collaboration with DE and IA has been working on MLST strategies to type Avibacterium paragallinarum the causal agent of infectious coryza and Pasteurella multocida.  


Virology. SEPRL has been working on a new sampling strategy for caged hens after foreign animal disease outbreaks using cotton gauze instead of swabs. IL has developed multiple mAb clones for glycoprotein C of ILTV, these mAbs can be used in studies to determine genetic differences in resistance to ILTV.  GA has designed and validated an hemagglutination inhibition test specific for the detection of IBV DMV 1639 and is being used as a tool for the diagnostic of DMV 1639. CA demonstrated that IBV infection is associated with testicular atrophy and epididymitis-orchitis. This finding highlights the importance to expand molecular surveillance of IBV not only to respiratory tissues but to reproductive tract tissues. SEPRL using next generation sequencing directly from clinical samples and have identified and sequenced full genomes of avian Adenovirus D, chicken parvovirus, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Finally, CA has been working on the detection of antigenic determinants in avian reoviruses. Their goal is to find which genes are determining antigenicity and include them in reovirus typing.    


IMPACT OBJECTIVE #2: Laboratories across the U.S. are researching new approaches to detect and type bacterial and viral pathogens affecting poultry. The new tests are streamlining diagnostics and simplifying research. They also allow better understanding of the acting pathogens to create better prevention and controlled strategies.    



OBJECTIVE 3 - Elucidate the pathogenesis of poultry respiratory diseases


Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). AL evaluated the level of resistance of commercial specific pathogen free (SPF) white leghorn chickens (n=369) to a virulent Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) of the Arkansas type was assessed by level of viral load in trachea and cecal tonsils and by trachea histomorphometry. Contrary to expectations most chickens trended towards higher resistance with results showing a non-Gaussian distribution. The CA group previously demonstrated that MHC congenic chicken line 331/B2 is more resistant that congenic line 335/B19 to IBV challenge (M41 and ArkDPI) and wanted to answer how different were primary and secondary immune responses to IBV in MHC B2 and B19 haplotype chickens. They found that independent of the challenge the secondary response of the B2 line had increased number of macrophages in the trachea an HG and a CD4+ increase in the HG. NB established a virus embryo model to determine if antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs between IBV and partially neutralizing antibodies using suboptimal levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Massachusetts vaccine with its homologous antisera. The results of two were similar and demonstrated that when suboptimal levels of antibody (i.e., antibody levels not capable of producing viral neutralization) were combined with IBV there was an increase or enhancement of viral production (i.e., more virus positive egg embryos than expected).


Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). DE developed and employed a bioinformatics pipeline that allowed a comprehensive analysis of the microbial ecology of the avian respiratory tract of a commercial antibiotic free healthy flock of chickens throughout their grow out cycle. This approach was used to demonstrate the dysbiosis exhibited in the respiratory virome of birds diagnosed with infectious laryngotracheitis virus. GA studied the expression of types I, II, and III interferons and four interferon stimulated genes (ISGs: IFIT5, IFITM5, MX1, and OASL) in the conjunctiva, larynx, and trachea of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens after ocular inoculation with life attenuate vaccine strains tissue culture origin (TCO) and the chicken embryo origin (CEO), virulent strains 63140 (Genotype V) and 1874c5 (Genotype VI).  GA found that the CEO vaccine downregulates type I interferon gene expression and that both vaccines, and virulent strains upregulate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the trachea independently of type I interferon expression. IL in collaboration with GA study the function of avian herpesvirus glycoprotein C (gC) and conserved herpesvirus protein kinase (CHPK) in transmission of Marek’s disease virus (MDV), Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV).  They exchanged the MDV gC for the ILTV and HVT gC proteins. ILTV gC was unable to compensate for chicken MDV gC transmission, while turkey HVT gC did, suggesting that ILTV gC most likely directs the virus to different cell types that MDV requires for transmission (i.e., B and T cells, macrophages), while HVT gC can perform this function. In another study the group restored a mutation in the CHPK gene of an MDV vaccine and the transmission from bird to bird of the strain was restored as well. SEPRL in collaboration with GA evaluated the host genetic resistance of six B (2, 5, 12, 13, 19 and 21) congenic chicken lines and two lines with the same MHC but differ in non-MHC genes (6 and 7) to ILTV and found that B*2 and B*5 as well as Line 6 were more resistance to disease. Also, SEPRL developed a cosmid/yeast centromeric plasmids (YCp) that encompasses 90% of the ILTV genome from which viruses were rescued.


Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). NY tested the accuracy to detect poultry and House Finch origin MG strains from House Finches (HF) by collecting both conjunctiva and choanal swabs. Results showed that bacteria load in the conjunctiva from HF inoculated with poultry MG isolates was very low compared to bacteria load in the choana sample of the same individual and to the bacteria load of HF MG isolates in the conjunctiva. Choanal loads did not differ between isolates.


Avian Influenza (AI). SEPRL found that multiple genetic changes in the PB, NP, HA and NA genes were necessary to allow wild bird H5NX Goose/Guandong lineage viruses to adapt to poultry and result in highly pathogenic outbreaks of the disease. While the highly pathogenic H5NX CLADE virus showed to productively replicate in surfs scoters without showing clinical disease. Regarding H7 AI viruses they found that changes in the HA and small deletion in the NA gene of the H7N3 viruses were responsible for the highly pathogenic H7N3 phenotype that caused outbreaks in Turkey flocks. Lastly, H7N9 duck virus although maintained as low pathogenic showed a fast adaptation into poultry as indicated by high titers and substantial shedding by the oral and cloacal routes of chickens. The SEPRL group found that five poultry species (chickens, turkeys, Pekin ducks, Japanese quails, and Chinese domestic geese) and chicken embryos could not be infected with SARS-COV-2 or with MERSCOV.


IMPACT OBJECTIVE #3. The knowledge that certain MHC congenic chicken lines are resistant to ILTV and IBV; the development of a microbial ecology data base of the avian respiratory tract are tools that will help to better understand interactions between these pathogens and the host. Also, a better understanding of the antiviral innate responses by respiratory vaccines will be helpful to design better attenuated live vaccine strains. Lastly, experiments with avian influenza highlight these experiments highlight the importance of surveillance in wild birds, waterfowl and in poultry populations.





Vaccines and vaccination strategies

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). AL further optimized the efficacy of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinant LaSota strain (rLS) expressing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas-type (Ark) trimeric spike ectodomain (Se) (rLS/ArkSe) by developing a new rLS expressing both, the chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and the IBV Ark S1 trimeric ectodomain. The addition of the GMCSF appeared to positively serve as an adjuvant because this new construct improved protection against homologous and heterologous challenges when priming with the rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF construct following with the widely use Mass vaccine. CN developed single protein fluorescent nanoparticle which is composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA) surrounded by a layer of organic diacid. These nanoparticles have been conjugated to deliver an antigenic peptide of IBV. The antigenic peptide was delivered intramuscularly and was able to induce an antibody response and chickens were protected against Massachusetts 41 (M41) field type IBV.


Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). GA compared different vaccination programs against MG and found the combined program of live F strain vaccine followed by two doses of inactivated MG vaccine vaccination provided the best protection in comparison to using live vaccine (F strain) alone.


Avian Influenza (AI). SEPRL revised the protection efficacy of inactivated vaccines from contemporary North America H7 avian influenza virus and found two non-virulent isolates that can be used as potential vaccines to control future outbreaks of highly pathogenic H7 avian influenza. Advanced computational optimized broadly reactive antigen approach (COBRA) was utilized to design an H5 antigen with antigenic sites that comprise epitopes that represent the complete A/Goose/Guandong/1996 H5 sequences lineage.  The COBRA designed H5 antigen was expressed by the Herpesvirus of Turkey (HVT) vector and this vaccine elicited a wide variety of antibodies that reacted with different GS/GD lineage variants and elicited protection against antigenically closely related antigens. Also using viruses from the GS/GC lineage the SEPRL group has evaluated inactivated pre-pandemic that can be used as broad-spectrum agricultural and human pre-pandemic vaccines. OH utilized a high interferon-inducing H7 influenza vaccine and introduced four mutations (HA, PA-X, PA-basic2, NS-1). This quadrupole mutant was safe for in ovo vaccination and induced protection against heterologous challenge at two weeks after hatch. The concept of interferon-inducing vaccines can be applied to other avian vaccines that are targeted for in ovo application.     


Newcastle disease virus (NDV).  Current live attenuated NDV vaccines are responsible for severe vaccine reactions and do not elicit cross protection against novel genotype of the virus. SEPRL utilized an Adenovirus to express the NDV fusion protein and demonstrated that the Adenovirus-fusion vector elicited immune responses in chickens and matched the F protein of the vaccine with the challenge virus provided best protection.

Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Although not a respiratory disease, there is strong evidence that new very virulent plus strains of MDV can induce immunosuppression which will aggravate any respiratory infection.  In that instance vaccination against MDV is relevant not only to avoid tumor formation but to avoid immunosuppression. However, current MDV vaccines and vaccination strategies delivered in ovo and at day of age with cell associated virus prevent tumor formation but do not block infection. IL designed MDV vaccines to be more transmissible in that instance birds can be expose through the natural route (respiratory tract) eliciting then enhanced immune responses that can better limit or block natural infection.



Novel non-antibiotic compounds for the control of avian pathogenic E.coli (APEC) and Mycoplasma infections in poultry. OH has identified and characterized novel non-antibiotic compounds that inhibit APEC and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Two of the compounds against E.coli were tested via the drinking water and the reduction APEC on experimentally infected birds was significant. The Mycoplasma compounds are still to be tested.


As biosecurity is another important arm in the control of respiratory diseases of poultry NB has established an online program that offers training through educational videos, slide sets to promote understanding of biosecurity principles and on-site examples of tabletop biosecurity audits. This web site prepares poultry producers for catastrophic events as the introduction of highly pathogenic influenza.  Also, the NB group has evaluated the level of biosecurity necessary during the handling and composting of routine mortality with tumbler composters. This assessment has resulted in very specific guidelines on how to properly compost and handle mortalities.


IMPACT OBJECTIVE #4: Successful outcome of these studies are a step forward towards development of safe, cost-effective, IBV, NDV, MDV, and effective influenza vaccines for poultry, non-antibiotic treatments against avian mycoplasmas, and enhanced biosecurity guidelines against catastrophic diseases such as highly pathogenic avian Influenza.




  1. Understanding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases in the US, through surveillance, mapping, genetic characterization strategies has been crucial to establish successful prevention and control strategies including vaccination, management, and biosecurity.
  2. Laboratories across the U.S. are researching new approaches to detect and type bacterial and viral pathogens affecting poultry. The new tests are streamlining diagnostics and simplifying research. They also allow better understanding of the acting pathogens to create better prevention and controlled strategies.
  3. The knowledge that certain MHC congenic chicken lines are resistant to ILTV and IBV; the development of a microbial ecology data base of the avian respiratory tract are tools that will help to better understand interactions between these pathogens and the host. Also, a better understanding of the antiviral innate responses by respiratory vaccines will be helpful to design better attenuated live vaccine strains. Lastly, experiments with avian influenza highlight these experiments highlight the importance of surveillance in wild birds, waterfowl and in poultry populations.
  4. Successful outcome of these studies are a step forward towards development of safe, cost-effective, IBV, NDV, MDV, and effective influenza vaccines for poultry, non-antibiotic treatments against avian mycoplasmas, and enhanced biosecurity guidelines against catastrophic diseases such as highly pathogenic avian Influenza.


Publications (Underlined references denote collaboration between stations and names in bold denote members of the NC1180 Group)


Abundo MC, Ngunjiri JM, Taylor KJM, Ji H, Ghorbani A, KC M, Weber BP, Johnson TJ, Lee CW. Assessment of two DNA extraction kits for profiling poultry respiratory microbiota from multiple sample types. PLoS One. 16(1): e0241732. 2021. [Collaboration between University of Minnesota and the Ohio State University]


Amro Hashish, Avanti Sinha, Amr Mekky, Yuko Sato, Nubia R. Macedo and Mohamed El-Gazzar. Development and Validation of Two Diagnostic Real-Time PCR (TaqMan) Assays for the Detection of Bordetella avium from Clinical Samples and Comparison to the Currently Available Real-Time TaqMan PCR Assay. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2232.


Aseno S., J. Ding, A. Kalluri2, Z. Helal, C.V. Kumar and M. I. Khan. Fluodot Nanoparticle - A Promising Novel Delivery System for Veterinary Vaccine. International Journal of Nanoparticle Research, August, 2020;


Aston E., A. Nayaran, S. Egaña, M. Wallach, R.A. Gallardo. Hyperimmunized chickens produce neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. 2021. Scientific Reports. Submitted.


Aston E., Y. Wang, K. Tracy, R.A. Gallardo, S. J. Lamont, H. Zhou. Comparison of celular immune responses to avian influenza in two genetically distinct, highly inbred chickens. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 2021. 235:110233.


Bertran, K., Kassa, A., Criado, M. F., Nuñez, I. A., Lee, D.-H., Killmaster, L., Sá e Silva, M., Ross, T. M., Mebatsion, T., Pritchard, N., & Swayne, D. E. (2021). Efficacy of recombinant Marek’s disease virus vectored vaccines with computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA) hemagglutinin insert against genetically diverse H5 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Vaccine, 39(14), 1933–1942.


Beyene T. J., C. W. Lee, G. Lossie, A. G. Arruda. Poultry professionals’ perception of participation in voluntary disease mapping and monitoring programs in the United States: a cluster analysis. Avian Diseases. 65(1): 67-76. [Collaboration between the Ohio State University and Iowa State University]


Booney, P. J. Bonney, Sasidhar Malladi, Amos Ssematimba, Erica Spackman, Mia Kim Torchetti, Marie Culhane, & Carol J. Cardona. (2021). Estimating epidemiological parameters using diagnostic testing data from low pathogenicity avian influenza infected turkey houses. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1–10.


Campler  M. R., T-Y. Cheng, C. Hofacre, C-W. Lee, G. Lossie, M. El-Gazzar, A. G. Arruda. Spatial factors influencing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) antibody titers at slaughter in broiler chickens. In preparation.


Chang, R., Pandey, P., Li, Y., Venkitasamy, C., Chen, Z., Gallardo, R., Weimer, B. and Jay-Russell, M., 2020. Assessment of gaseous ozone treatment on Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157: H7 reductions in poultry litter. Waste Management117, pp.42-47.



Chrzastek, K., Segovia, K., Torchetti, M., Killian, M. L., Pantin-Jackwood, M., & Kapczynski, D. R. (2021). Virus Adaptation Following Experimental Infection of Chickens with a Domestic Duck Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Isolate from the 2017 USA H7N9 Outbreak Identifies Polymorphic Mutations in Multiple Gene Segments. VIRUSES-BASEL, 13(6), 1166.


 Da Silva A.P., C. Giroux, H. S. Sellers, A. Mendoza-Reilley, S. Stoute and R.A. Gallardo. Characterization of an IBV isolated from commercial layers suffering from false layer syndrome. 2021. Avian Diseases.


Da Silva A.P., E. Aston, G. Chiwanga, A. Birakos, A. Muhairwa, B. Kayang, T. Kelly, H. Zhou, R.A. Gallardo. Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chickens in Tanzania and Ghana. Viruses. 2020. 12(9), 916.


Da Silva A.P. and R.A. Gallardo. Review: The Chicken MHC: Insights on genetic resistance, immunity and inflammation following infectious bronchitis virus infections. Viruses (2020) Accepted 


Da Silva Ana P., Robin Gilbert, Matilde Alfonso, Alan Conley, Kelli Jones, Philip A. Stayer, Frederic J. Hoerr, Rodrigo A. Gallardo. Testicular atrophy and epididymitis-orchitis associated with infectious bronchitis virus in broiler breeder roosters. Avian Diseases. Submitted.


Da Silva A.P., R. Hauck, S.R.C Nociti, C. Kern, H. L. Shivaprasad, H. Zhou, and R.A. Gallardo. Molecular biology and pathological process of an infectious bronchitis virus with enteric tropism in commercial broilers. Viruses, Respiratory Diseases Special Edition. 2021. Viruses.


Egaña-Labrin S., C. Jerry, H. J. Roh, A. P. da Silva, C. Corsiglia, B. Crossley, D. Rejmanek, R. A. Gallardo. Avian Reoviruses of the Same Genotype Induce Different Pathology in Chickens. Avian Diseases. Accepted for publication.


Ferreira, H. L., Miller, P. J., Suarez, D. L., & Meurens, F. (2021). Protection against Different Genotypes of Newcastle Disease Viruses (NDV) Afforded by an Adenovirus-Vectored Fusion Protein and Live NDV Vaccines in Chickens. Vaccines, 9(2), 182.


Gallardo R.A. and A.P. Da Silva. MHC B Complex Genetic Resistance amd Immune Responses to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Chickens. Avian Diseases. Invited review. Accepted.


Gonzales-Viera O., F. Carvallo-Chaigneau, E. Blair, D. Rejmanek, O. Erdogan-Bamac, K. Sverlow, A. Figueroa, R.A. Gallardo, A. Mete. Infectious bronchitis virus prevalence, characterization and strain identification in California backyard chickens. Avian Dis. (2021) DOI: 10.1637/aviandiseases-d-20-00113 PMID: 33400768 


Goraichuk, I. V., Davis, J. F., Kulkarni, A. B., Afonso, C. L., & Suarez, D. L. (2021). A 24-year-old sample contributes the complete genome sequence of fowl Aviadenovirus D from the United States. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 10(1).


Goraichuk, I. V., Davis, J. F., Parris, D. J., Kariithi, H. M., Afonso, C. L., & Suarez, D. L. (2021). Near-Complete Genome Sequences of Five Siciniviruses from North America. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 10(19).


Goraichuk, I. V., Davis, J. F., Kulkarni, A. B., Afonso, C. L., & Suarez, D. L. (2021, April 15). Whole-genome sequence of avian coronavirus from a 15-year-old sample confirms evidence of ga08-like strain circulation 4 years prior to its first reported outbreak. Microbiology Resource Announcements. Retrieved January 25, 2022, from


Hein, R., R. Koopman, M.García, N. Armour,  J. R. Dunn, T. Barbosa & A. Martinez. Review of Poultry Recombinant Vector Vaccines. Avian Dis.65: (3):438-452. doi: 10.1637/0005-2086-65.3.438. 2021.


Kariithi, H. M., Ferreira, H. L., Welch, C. N., Ateya, L. O., Apopo, A. A., Zoller, R., Volkening, J. D., Williams-Coplin, D., Parris, D. J., Olivier, T. L., Goldenberg, D., Binepal, Y. S., Hernandez, S. M., Afonso, C. L., & Suarez, D. L. (2021). Surveillance and Genetic Characterization of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Subgenotype V.3 in Indigenous Chickens from Backyard Poultry Farms and Live Bird Markets in Kenya. Viruses, 13(1).


Kathayat D, Closs G Jr, Helmy YA, Lokesh D, Ranjit S, Rajashekara G. Peptides affecting outer membrane lipid asymmetry (MlaA-OmpC/F) system reduce avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) colonization in chickens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2021 Jun 16:AEM0056721. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00567-21. Online ahead of print.PMID: 34132592.


Kathayat, D.; Lokesh, D.; Ranjit, S.; Rajashekara, G. Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC): An Overview of Virulence and Pathogenesis Factors, Zoonotic Potential, and Control Strategies. Pathogens 2021, 10, 467.


Kathayat D, Closs G Jr, Helmy YA, Deblais L, Srivastava V, Rajashekara G. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Against Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Identification of Novel Probiotic-Derived Bioactive Peptides. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2021 Aug 30. doi: 10.1007/s12602-021-09840-1. PMID: 34458959.


Khalid Z.*, L. He, Q. Yu, C. Breedlove, K. Joiner, H. Toro (2021). Enhanced Protection by Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Infectious Bronchitis Virus Spike-Ectodomain and Chicken Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Avian Diseases 65: 364-372.


Kwon Junghoon, Criado, M. F., Killmaster, L., Ali, M. Z., Mohammad Giasuddin, Samad, M. A., Karim, M. R., Brum, E., Hasan, M. Z., Lee Donghun, Spackman, E., & Swayne, D. E. (2021). Efficacy of two vaccines against recent emergent antigenic variants of clade highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh. Vaccine, 39(21), 2824–2832.


Lee, D.-H., Killian, M. L., Deliberto, T. J., Wan, X.-F., Lei, L., Swayne, D. E., & Torchetti, M. K. (2021). H7N1 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Poultry in the United States During 2018. Avian Diseases, 65(1), 59–62.


Lockyear O.*, C. Breedlove, K. Joiner, H. Toro (2021). Distribution of Resistance in a Naïve Chicken Population to Infectious Bronchitis Virus. Avian Diseases (submitted for publication October 2021).


Maekawa, D., S. M. Riblet, P. Whang, D. J. Hurley, & M. García. Activation of Cytotoxic Lymphocytes and Presence of Regulatory T Cells in the Trachea of Non-vaccinated and Vaccinated Chickens as a Recall to an Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Challenge. Vaccines, 9, 2021


Maekawa, D., S. M. Riblet, P. Whang, I. Alvarado, & M. García. A Cell Line Adapted Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Strain (BDORFC) for in ovo and Hatchery Spray Vaccination Alone or in Combination with a Recombinant HVT-LT Vaccine. Avian Dis. 65:500-507. 2021.


Maekawa, D., P. Whang, S. M. Riblet, D. J. Hurley, James S. Guy & M. García. Assessing the infiltration of immune cells in the upper trachea mucosa after infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccination and challenge. 50; 6: 540-556. 2021.


Mahesh, K., Ngunjiri, J. M., Ghorbani, A., Abundo, M. E. C., Wilbanks, K. Q., Lee, K., & Lee, C.-W. (2021). Assessment of TLR3 and MDA5-Mediated Immune Responses Using Knockout Quail Fibroblast Cells. Avian Diseases, 65(3), 419–428.


Montine P., T.R. Kelly, S. Stoute, A.P. da Silva, B. Crossley, C. Corsiglia, H.L. Shivaprasad, and R.A. Gallardo. Infectious Bronchitis Virus Surveillance in Broilers in California (2012-2020). Avian Diseases. Submitted.


Mulholland, K.A., M.G. Robinson, S.J. Keeler, T.J. Johnson, B.P. Youmans and C.L. Keeler, Jr. (2021) Metagenomic analysis of the respiratory microbiome of a healthy broiler flock from hatching to processing. Microorganisms, 9, 721. (UD, U Minn.)


Mushi J., G. H. Chiwanga, E. Mollel, M. Walugembe, R. A. Max, P. Msoffe, R. A. Gallardo, T. Kelly, S. Lamont, J. Dekkers, H. Zhou, A. Muhairwa. Antibody response, viral load, viral clearance and growth rate in Tanzanian free-range local chickens infected with lentogenic Newcastle disease virus. 2021. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. In Press. 


Ngunjiri JM, Taylor KJM, Ji H, Abundo MC, Ghorbani A, KC M, Lee CW. Influenza A virus infection in turkeys induces respiratory and enteric bacterial dysbiosis correlating with cytokine gene expression. PeerJ. 2021 Jul 22;9:e11806.


Reinoso-Pérez María Teresa, Alexander A.  Levitskiy, Keila V. Dhondt Edan Tulman, Steven J. Geary and André A. Dhondt. (Changes in tissue tropism of Mycoplasma gallisepticum following host jump. Journal of Wildlife Diseases (in review) [collaboration with UCONN).


Saelao P., Y. Wang, G. Chanthavixay, V. Yu, R.A. Gallardo, J. Dekkers, S. J. Lamont, T. Kelly, H. Zhou. Distinct transcriptomic response to Newcastle disease virus infection during heat stress in chicken tracheal epitelial tissue. 2021. Scientific Reports. 11:7450.  


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